The double burden of under- and overnutrition profoundly affects human health globally. According to the World Health Organization, obesity and diabetes rates have almost doubled worldwide since 1980, and, in 2011, more than 40 million children under 5 years of age were overweight. Ecologic factors, parental genetics and fitness, and the intrauterine environment significantly influence the likelihood of offspring developing the dysmetabolic diathesis of obesity. This report examines the effects of these factors, including preconception, intrauterine and postnatal energy balance affecting programming of transgenerational transmission, and development of chronic diseases later in life—in particular, diabesity and its comorbidities.
This volume also includes a report that discusses the challenges involved in providing safe food to the growing global population and preventing foodborne illness. Among specialists and other individuals, food scientists have a key responsibility to improve and use science-based tools to address risk and advise food handlers and manufacturers with best-practice recommendations. With collaboration from production agriculture, food processors, state and federal agencies, and consumers, it is critical to implement science-based strategies that address food safety and that have been evaluated for effectiveness in controlling and/or eliminating hazards. This report brings together leading food safety experts to address these issues with a focus on three areas: economic, social, and policy aspects of food safety; production and postharvest technology for safe food; and innovative public communication for food safety and nutrition.
Lastly, this volume presents a review that discusses angiogenesis and inflammation—two highly linked processes. In the last decade, several factors with dual function in both of these major pathways have been identified. This review focuses on angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), an important proangiogenic factor that has more recently been implicated in mediating inflammatory processes as well. Ang-2 is upregulated in multiple inflammatory diseases and has been implicated in the direct control of inflammation-related signaling pathways. As a consequence of its multiple roles, designs for therapeutic targeting of Ang-2 should consider the dual function of this factor in regulating angiogenesis and inflammation.Table of contents