The climate of the New York City metropolitan region is changing—annual temperatures are hotter, heavy downpours are increasingly frequent, and the sea is rising. These changing climate hazards increase the risks for the people, economy, and infrastructure of New York City. In early September 2012, just weeks before Hurricane Sandy hit, the New York City Council passed Local Law 42 that established the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) as an ongoing body serving the City of New York. Each year, the NPCC reviews recent scientific data on climate change and its potential impacts, and makes recommendations on climate projections for the coming decades to the end of the century. This volume is a continuation of the NPCC assessment process that began in 2008, with some significant advances that reflect the growing sophistication of climate science research and the evolving policy agenda to which it must respond. The report provides the City of New York with projections of its climate to the end of the century, both static and dynamic coastal storm surge modeling, and next steps in the development of an indicators and monitoring system for climate change impacts and adaptation. The assessment process is innovative because it looks beyond critical infrastructure and its vulnerability to climate change, and more directly focuses on what a more dynamic climate will mean for the everyday experience of the city's residents.
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