Brain disorders can be divided into two broadly defined categories: (1) those resulting from the damage or death of healthy, functioning cells and brain tissue, often caused by external conditions such as cerebrovascular disease, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (2) those resulting from an intrinsic or chronic dysfunction of the brain, either within the cells or in their connectivity. Among these types of disorders are debilitating affect-related psychiatric illnesses, such as depression and bipolar disorder. To raise awareness for breakthrough treatments for neurological disease affecting both functional groups, the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science, and Community Development, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, and the New York Academy of Sciences jointly presented an international conference on March 15–17, 2014, in Doha, Qatar, highlighting new advances in clinical neuroscience. The papers in this Annals volume focus on either affective disorders or TBI, with discussions of the latest in translational research, advanced brain imaging, novel diagnostics, investigative therapies, and cutting-edge findings from clinical trials. The specific topics covered include the promise of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression; the interface of depression and cardiovascular disease; perspectives on the past, present, and future of depression; the optimization of treatments for anxiety by age and genetics; the diagnosis and treatment of depression and cognitive impairment in late life; bipolar disorder in the Arab world; the issues encountered in recent attempts to develop novel antidepressant agents; hypertonic saline for the management of raised intracranial pressure after severe TBI; clinical features and biomarkers of concussion and mild TBI in pediatric patients; and a critical review of the tenets underpinning current management of severe TBI.