Annals

Annals Reports (5)

Edited by Edited by Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences editorial staff
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Annals Reports (5)

Published: August 2014

Volume 1321

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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference “Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality” to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference.

Optimal nutrition across the continuum of care plays a key role in the short- and long-term clinical and economic outcomes of patients. Worldwide, an estimated one-quarter to one-half of patients admitted to hospitals each year are malnourished. Malnutrition can increase healthcare costs by delaying patient recovery and rehabilitation and increasing the risk of medical complications. Nutrition interventions have the potential to provide cost-effective preventive care and treatment measures. However, limited data exist on the economics and impact evaluations of these interventions. In this report, nutrition and health system researchers, clinicians, economists, and policymakers discuss emerging global research on nutrition health economics, the role of nutrition interventions across the continuum of care, and how nutrition can affect healthcare costs in the context of hospital malnutrition.

Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) offer promise as a therapeutic modality that can potentially reduce the toxicities and poor therapeutic indices caused by the lack of specificity of conventional anticancer therapies. ADCs combine the potency of cytotoxic agents with the target selectivity of antibodies by chemically linking a cytotoxic payload to an antibody, potentially creating a synthetic molecule that will deliver targeted antitumor therapy that is both safe and efficacious. The ADC repertoire contains a range of payload molecules, antibodies, and linkers. Two ADC molecules, Kadcyla and Adcetris, have been approved by the FDA, and many more are currently in clinical development.