Vertigo is not a unique disease entity. The term covers a number of multisensory and sensorimotor syndromes of various etiologies and pathogeneses. After headache, vertigo is one of the most frequent presenting symptoms by patients, and not only in neurology. Whether caused by a physiological stimulation (motion sickness, height vertigo) or a lesion (unilateral labyrinthine failure, central vestibular lesion), vertigo characteristically exhibits similar symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, nystagmus, and ataxia despite the different pathomechanisms. Disorders of perception (dizziness), gaze stabilization (nystagmus), posture control (falling tendency, ataxia), and the vegetative system (nausea) are related to the main functions of the vestibular system that are located in different sites in the brain. One aim of this volume is to make more understandable the different vestibular syndromes by developing clear, anatomical categories, and clinical classifications.