According to the biased competition framework, competition, selection, and priority control are essential processing characteristics of the brain. For instance, in the visual modality, only a limited number of objects and features from a single eye fixation are available for perception, action, and memory. In one interpretation of this framework, competition between visual objects is biased by attentional resources that are distributed according to priorities. Thus, factors controlling priority, such as the current task or salience of environmental information, play a crucial role in selective visual processing across space and time. This Annals volume presents a collection of papers stemming from the conference “Competition and priority control in mind and brain: new perspectives from task-driven vision,” held March 2013 at Bielefeld University in Bielefeld, Germany. The papers focus on three memory-related aspects of competitive visual processing: interactions of attention and working memory, attention and long-term memory, and attention and prediction.