Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, its intake has been rising as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods that contain phosphorus as an additive. Studies show that an intake of phosphorus that exceeds nutrient needs may significantly disrupt hormonal regulation of phosphorus, calcium, and vitamin D, contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. In addition, abnormally high serum phosphorus is linked to cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. This Annals volume includes reviews of topics presented at the conference “Current Phosphorus Intake: What is the Public Health Impact?”, held February 26, 2013 and sponsored by the Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. The reviews explore the health implications of high dietary phosphorus intake or elevated serum phosphorus levels for the general population, and discuss the current evidence associating excess phosphorus intake with potential risk for diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, and hypertension. Also considered are the implications of recent findings for future research and nutrition policy.