The identification of the mitochondrion represents a tremendous achievement in the attempt by scientists to understand the essence of life and life's energy. We now know that the mitochondrion is the intracellular powerhouse that generates ATP, the chemical energy source, through a chain of reactions called oxidative phosphorylation. The realm of mitochondrial research has steadily broadened, and the mitochondrion is currently known to play major roles in many diseases: neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes mellitus, senescence, programmed cell death, and carcinogenesis, to name just a few. Furthermore, mitochondria tell us the history of the evolution of life and of our migration out of Africa. Many scientific societies have been founded with the aim of understanding and implementing the vast knowledge gained by the study of mitochondria. Likewise, the Asian Society for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine (ASMRM) brought together leading scientists from Asia and around the world to present and discuss recent progress in the field of mitochondriology. This volume covers a wide range of complementary research areas: human evolutionary history and mitochondrial diseases, control of mitochondrial function, mitochondrial transcription factor, the mechanisms of mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and the diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial diseases.