Recently, much attention has been focused on aging and obesity and the pivotal roles these conditions play in the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Several preclinical and clinical studies have revealed associations between aging and obesity and altered celluar environments––including genetic changes and inflammation––in the pathogenesis of many chronic disorders. Conventional methods for the treatment of cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, result in limited success in certain cases and demonstrate additional modalities are required. In contrast to conventional treatments, some recent strategies are shifting to cancer prevention and treatment through physical exercise and better nutrition to control tumor progression, and to improve prognosis and rehabilitation in some cancer patients. This Annals volume presents a series of short reviews that focus on recent advances in, and future directions for, physical and nutritional bio-modulation and prevention of aging, obesity, and cancer, and suggest clinical care guidelines for the general population and for cancer patients and survivors who need proper physical exercise and optimal nutrition.