This Annals issue focuses on the fact that the psychiatric and neurologic consequences of war are wide-ranging and affect every level of human organization, from the nation state to the molecular. These manuscripts endeavor to consider these consequences from a multitude of perspectives and modes of inquiry; from the intrapsychic to the empirical. Authors will address the nature of modern warfare and social interventions to present it in topics such as “The Mind of the Jihadist” and “Preventing Mass Violence.” Intervention and prevention will then be considered for the effects of war on the individual. While substantial strides have been made in characterization of the specific neurologic and psychiatric consequences of war, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), significant gaps remain in the understanding of how to treat or prevent these outcomes. Clinical and research scientists will discuss cutting-edge research, treatment approaches and public policy issues in roundtable formats with the goal of creating an agenda for further inquiry and action.