Since the New York Academy of Sciences sponsored its 1996 conference, Psychobiology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in New York City, there have been major research advances in the understanding and treatment of this disorder. Most of the biologic findings presented at the 1996 conference in extremely preliminary form have withstood the test of time and replication, and almost without exception the researchers who presented at the previous conference are still active researchers in the field of PTSD. The field has undergone a dramatic improvement in the quality of findings — issues that appeared to be relatively simple ten years ago with only limited data available are now far more complex. However, strategies for examining the psychobiology of PTSD have allowed the field to keep pace with these complexities. This volume integrates basic science and clinical research, so that both bench researchers and clinicians can develop a comprehensive understanding of recent progress in posttraumatic stress research, including its molecular biology, pathophysiology, neurology, epidemiology, clinical care, and psychosocial management.