Poverty contributes to ill health among the poor and to impeded development among poor children. Conversely, It begins with chapters addressing specific diseases associated with poverty, such as tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS, lymphatic filariasis, hookworm, and measles, along with public health issues in the developing world. Other chapters address poverty and maternal health, health disparities, and human nutrition. Effects of health care services, education, and housing on human development are also addressed, as are the social, economic, engineering, and technology determinants of human development. The volume is the response of the New York Academy of Sciences to a request by the Council of Science Editors that medical and scientific journals all over the world publish an issue addressing the theme of poverty and human development. It is designed to raise awareness and stimulate interest and research into poverty and its pervasive effects on human development. More than 231 scientific journals worldwide participated simultaneously in the Global Theme Issue initiative.