Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol found in red grapes (wine), peanuts, and berries, has been linked to health and disease prevention because of its demonstrated cardioprotective, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. However, because of limitations including rapid metabolism and low bioavailability, only limited clinical trials of resveratrol have been possible. To share recent findings on the biological effects of resveratrol and its derivatives and discuss new directions for resveratrol research, the conference “Resveratrol2014, the Third International Conference on Resveratrol and Health” was convened from November 30 to December 3, 2014 in Hawaii. This Annals volume presents a collection of papers stemming from this conference and covers a range of topics, including the mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of resveratrol in pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, heart failure, dystrophic cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Also discussed are the challenges in analyzing the biological effects of resveratrol; new ways of regulation by resveratrol involving miRNAs, with emphasis on inflammation; dendrimer nanotechnology for enhanced formulation and controlled delivery of resveratrol; resveratrol metabolite profiling in clinical nutrition research; and lastly, resveratrol and health from a consumer perspective.