At a time when the number of climate-associated disasters is increasing globally as a result of climate change, there is urgent need in public health for a regionally oriented prediction system of climate variability for months to seasons in advance. In addition, there is a need to drastically enhance the capacity to integrate climate information into disease models. This Annals issue presents a collection of papers discussing the latest research on the effects of climate and environmental changes on human health, including on the transmission of infectious diseases and the epidemiology of noncommunicable diseases. The papers stem from a multidisciplinary conference in Barcelona in May 2015 called “Human Health in the Face of Climate Change,” sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the “la Caixa” Foundation, and BIOCAT. The papers in this issue cover several timely topics, including seasonal forecasting and health impact models; iterative management of heat early warning systems in a changing climate; meteorological variability and infectious disease in Central Africa; climate forcing and infectious disease transmission in urban landscapes; the contribution of urban climate versus global climate change to the spread of dengue; observed and projected drivers of emerging infectious diseases in Europe; and the role of environmental and climate factors on the epidemiology of Kawasaki disease.