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eBriefing

Advances in Pulmonary Fibrosis: Beyond the Fibroblast

Advances in Translational Models to Study Fibrosis
Reported by
Sara Donnelly

Posted May 28, 2020

Presented By

Biochemical Pharmacology Discussion Group

The New York Academy of Sciences

Overview 

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with few treatment options. Research on IPF and other interstitial lung diseases has historically focused on fibroblasts and the importance of TGF-beta-driven epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Recently, new data have highlighted key roles for additional cell types, including alveolar epithelial cells and endothelial cells, in the development or maintenance of lung fibrosis. Moreover, cellular senescence and immune pathways have also been found to contribute to IPF pathogenesis. This eBriefing showcases emerging biological mechanisms underlying the etiology of pulmonary fibrosis and explores novel ways to remove, repair or regenerate damaged lung.

In This eBriefing, You’ll Learn

  • The importance of cellular senescence and immune signaling in IPF
  • The roles of endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells, which are emerging as key drivers of disease

Keynote Speaker

Oliver Eickelberg, MD
Oliver Eickelberg, MD

University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus

Speakers

Megan Ballinger
Megan Ballinger, PhD

Ohio State University

Wonder Puryear Drake
Wonder P. Drake, MD

Vanderbilt University

Louise Hecker
Louise Hecker, PhD

University of Arizona

Boris Hinz
Boris Hinz, PhD

University of Toronto

James Kirkland
James Kirkland, MD, PhD

Mayo Clinic

Stijn De Langhe
Stijn De Langhe, PhD

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine

Ana Mora
Ana L. Mora, MD

University of Pittsburgh

Scientific Organizing Committee

Anthony V. Azzara, PhD

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Erica Herzog, MD, PhD

Yale University

Julia Kaufman, PhD

Boehringer Ingelheim

Chris Kitson, PhD

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Scott Macdonnell, PhD

Regeneron

Glenda Trujillo, PhD

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Sara Donnelly, PhD

The New York Academy of Sciences

Sonya Dougal, PhD

The New York Academy of Sciences

Event Sponsors

Program Supporters

Identifying Therapeutic Targets in Pulmonary Fibrosis

Speaker

Oliver Eickelberg, MD, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus

Dr. Eickelberg is currently Professor of Medicine, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. He studied medicine at the Medical University of Lübeck, Germany, and the University of Vienna in Austria, after which he performed scientific studies and clinical rotations at the University Hospital Basel in Switzerland. He then received a prestigious Feodor-LynenFellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt-Association, which enabled him to study lung and kidney fibrosis at Yale University School of Medicine from 1998 to 2002. Following these studies, Dr. Eickelberg accepted a faculty position at the University of Giessen School of Medicine in 2002, where he established his independent research group, as well as the International Graduate Program “Molecular Biology and Medicine of the Lung (MBML)”. He accepted a professorship at the University of Munich (LMU) and the Helmholtz Center Munich in 2008, where he was the founding chairman of the Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC), a translational medicine center. Dr. Eickelberg’s leadership in building the center and recruiting outstanding faculty has enabled the CPC to be one of most distinguished centers of excellence in respiratory medicine around the globe to date. In 2016, Dr. Eickelberg moved to Colorado, where he currently holds the rank of Tenured Professor.

Dr. Eickelberg is a long-standing associate editor of the most prestigious journal in the field, the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (since 2010). He serves as founding section editor “Lung Biology and Disease” for PLoS One since 2007. He is a member of the Editorial Board of the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology since 2007, Thorax since 2008, and Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group) since 2006. Dr. Eickelberg served the European Respiratory Society as Chairman of its 2014 International Conference, as Seminars and Conferences Director from 2010 through 2013, and as Chair of the ERS Lung Science Conference in Estoril from 2011 to 2013. He is a member of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) since 1998 and served the ATS as member of the Program Committee for 3 years and member of the Planning Committee for 2 years. He was elected to the American Society of Clinical Investigation in 2016.

Identifying Therapeutic Targets in Pulmonary Fibrosis


Oliver Eickelberg (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)

Further Reading

Eickelberg

Poczobutt JM, Eickelberg O.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199(12):1454‐1456

Can Altering Myofibroblast Cell Fate in Aging Promote Youthful Healing?

Speaker

Louise Hecker, PhD, University of Arizona

Dr. Hecker received her B.A. in biology from Hartwick College (2000), M.A. in Ecology, Evolution and Behavior from Binghamton University (2002), M.S. in Cell and Developmental Biology (2007) and Ph.D. in Applied Physics (2008) from the University of Michigan. Dr. Hecker’s broad research interest is in regenerative biology and medicine – a common theme that spans all of the diverse projects within her research portfolio. In 2014, Dr. Hecker accepted a position at the University of Arizona. She has published in high impact journals including Nature Medicine, Science Translational Medicine, and the Journal of Clinical Investigation. She is currently the PI of funded awards from the NIH, DoD, Dept of Veterans Affairs, and pharmaceutical industry. She is an inventor on 12 patents and is the founder of two companies.

Can Altering Myofibroblast Cell Fate in Aging Promote Youthful Healing?


Louise Hecker, PhD (University of Arizona)

Further Reading

Hecker

Kato K, Logsdon NJ, Shin YJ, et al.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2020;62(5):633‐644

Senolytics as Potential Disease Modifiers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Speaker

James Kirkland, MD, PhD, Mayo Clinic

James L. Kirkland, M.D., Ph.D., is the director of the Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging at Mayo Clinic and Noaber Foundation Professor of Aging Research. Dr. Kirkland’s research is on cellular senescence, age-related adipose tissue and metabolic dysfunction, and development of agents and strategies for targeting fundamental aging mechanisms to treat age-related chronic diseases and disabilities. He published the first article about drugs that clear senescent cells – senolytic agents. He is a scientific advisory board member for several companies and academic organizations. He is President of the American Federation for Aging Research, has been a member of the National Advisory Council on Aging of the National Institutes of Health, and past chair of the Biological Sciences Section of the Gerontological Society of America. He holds honorary appointments at Boston University and the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He is a board-certified specialist in internal medicine, geriatrics, and endocrinology and metabolism.

Senolytics as Potential Disease Modifiers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis


James Kirkland, MD, PhD (Mayo Clinic)

Further Reading

Kirkland

Xu M, Pirtskhalava T, Farr JN, et al.

Nat Med. 2018;24(8):1246‐1256

Schafer MJ, White TA, Iijima K, et al

Nat Commun. 2017;8:14532

Justice JN, Nambiar AM, Tchkonia T, et al

EBioMedicine. 2019;40:554‐563

Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Aging At The Crossroad Of The Pathogenesis Of Lung Fibrosis

Speaker

Ana L. Mora, MD, University of Pittsburgh

Ana L. Mora received her MD from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Medical School in Bogota, Colombia. After Research Trainee and Research Associate in Immunology in Colombia, Dr. Mora had her postdoctoral training as a Fellow in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Mora moved to Emory University in 2002 as faculty in the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine of the Emory University Department of Medicine, and in 2010 she joined the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine and the Vascular Medicine Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. Since 2018, Dr. Mora is faculty member of the Aging Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Mora’s research is focused in the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the disrepair and fibrosis in the lung and importantly, how aging-related cell perturbations contribute to this pathogenic process. Her pioneered aging studies showed that vulnerability and persistence of ER stress responses are key components of the age-related susceptibility to injury and lung fibrosis; and elucidated the novel concept that alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis have a key role in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis pathogenesis. Her work has been published in more than 80 peer review publications, several book chapters and editorial comments.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Aging At The Crossroad Of The Pathogenesis Of Lung Fibrosis


Ana L. Mora, MD (University of Pittsburgh)

Further Reading

Mora

Bueno M, Lai YC, Romero Y, et al

J Clin Invest. 2015;125(2):521‐538

Summer R, Mora AL

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2019;61(6):669‐670

Role of Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Alveolar Epithelial Regeneration in Lung Fibrosis

Speaker

Stijn De Langhe, PhD, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine

Role of Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Alveolar Epithelial Regeneration in Lung Fibrosis


Stijn De Langhe (University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine)

Further Reading

De Langhe

Yuan T, Klinkhammer K, Lyu H, et al.

Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:120

Sex Specific Inhibition of pSTAT3 Signaling in Programmed Death (PD)-1+ CD4+ T Cells Reduces Lung Fibrosis Pathogenesis

Speaker

Wonder P. Drake, MD Vanderbilt University

Dr. Wonder Drake is a Professor and Director of the Sarcoidosis Center of Excellence at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (VUSOM) in the Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, with a secondary appointment in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology. She also serves as the Director of the Vanderbilt Sarcoidosis Center of Excellence and holds the Robert Goodwin, Jr. Directorship. Dr. Drake began her medical education at VUSOM, followed by an Internal Medicine residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital, then returned to VUSOM to complete an Infectious Diseases Fellowship. She became interested in one of the most challenging clinical problems encountered in Medicine, effective treatment for sarcoidosis patients. She has spent the past 20 years conducting basic and translational research, investigating the relevant immunomolecular mechanisms driving sarcoidosis lung progression. Her basic and translational research is used to identify new therapeutics. She also leads clinical trials, along with Dr. Gordon Bernard, investigating potential therapeutics to halt loss of sarcoidosis lung function.

Sex Specific Inhibition of pSTAT3 Signaling in Programmed Death (PD)-1+ CD4+ T Cells Reduces Lung Fibrosis Pathogenesis


Wonder P. Drake (Vanderbilt University)

Further Reading

Drake

Celada LJ, Kropski JA, Herazo-Maya JD, et al

Sci Transl Med. 2018;10(460):eaar8356

Mechanisms Regulating the Recruitment of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages During Pulmonary Fibrosis

Further Reading

Megan Ballinger, PhD
Ohio State University

Dr. Megan Ballinger is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine at the Ohio State University. She graduated with a PhD in Immunology from the University of Michigan where she studied how lipid mediators regulate macrophage and neutrophil host defense functions during bacterial pneumonia. Dr. Ballinger remained at the University of Michigan for her postdoctoral studies in which she was awarded a Parker B. Francis Fellowship to examine the role of toll-like signaling in regulating innate immunity in the setting of non-infectious lung injury. In 2014, she moved to the Ohio State University and began studying how toll-like receptor signaling affects macrophage activation in

pulmonary fibrosis. Dr. Ballinger was awarded the Jo Rae Wright award for outstanding science from the American Thoracic Society. Recently, she was recently awarded her first NIH R01which focuses on mechanisms by which macrophages are recruited to the lung during injury and their contribution toward identifying and taking up collagen fragments.

Mechanisms Regulating the Recruitment of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages During Pulmonary Fibrosis


Megan Ballinger (Ohio State University)

Further Reading

Ballinger

Ballinger MN, Newstead MW, Zeng X, et al

J Immunol. 2015;194(4):1894‐1904. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1402377

Reader BF, Sethuraman S, Hay BR, et al

J Immunol. 2020;ji1900466

There Is Nothing Beyond the Fibroblast - On This Flat Earth

Speaker

Boris Hinz, PhD
University of Toronto

Boris Hinz is University of Toronto Distinguished Professor in Tissue Repair and Regeneration with primary appointment in the Faculty of Dentistry, Matrix Dynamics Group. He is cross-appointed with the Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery and the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering. Dr. Hinz holds a PhD degree (1998) in Cell Biology and Theoretical Biology from the University of Bonn, Germany. From 1999 to 2002, he was postdoctoral fellow of Dr. Giulio Gabbiani, Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Dr. Hinz then moved to lead a research group at the EcolePolytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, joining Cell Biology, Biophysics, and Bioengineering. He was nominated Maître d'enseignement et de recherche (Assistant Professor level) in 2006 and moved to Toronto in 2009 with Associate Professor appointment.

Dr. Hinz has been president and board member of the European Tissue Repair Society and was board member of the Wound Healing Society. He is secretary and inaugural board member of the Canadian Connective Tissue Society, board member of the International Dupuytren Society and the Canadian Dupuytren Society. He is Senior Editor of the journal “Wound Repair and Regeneration,” Associate Editor of “Biochemistry and Cell Biology,” editorial board member of “Matrix Biology,” and Associate Member of the Faculty of 1000.

His research led to the creation of two startup companies specialized on anti-fibrotic coatings for silicone implants and novel “soft” cell culture devices. Dr. Hinz’ research is currently funded by a multi-project Foundation Grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), CIHR operating funds, the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Ontario Research Foundation (ORF), and MITACS (Mathematics of Information Technology and Complex Systems).

There Is Nothing Beyond the Fibroblast - On This Flat Earth


Boris Hinz (University of Toronto)

Further Reading

Hinz

Justice JN, Nambiar AM, Tchkonia T, et al

EBioMedicine. 2019;40:554‐563

Pakshir P, Alizadehgiashi M, Wong B, et al

Nat Commun. 2019 May 20;10(1):2286]. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):1850

Li CX, Talele NP, Boo S, et al

Nat Mater. 2017;16(3):379‐389