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Energy for the Next 20 Years: Protecting the Environment and Meeting Our Demands

Energy for the Next 20 Years: Protecting the Environment and Meeting Our Demands
Reported by
Kelly Lombardo

Posted April 04, 2012


According to the International Energy Agency, global energy use is expected to increase by 50% over the next 2 decades, in part because of the expanding global population. In conjunction with this substantial surge in demand, global temperatures are increasing because of elevated greenhouse gas emissions produced by inexpensive methods of energy production, such as the burning of coal. This situation introduces the tremendous challenge of simultaneously meeting the world's expanding energy needs while reducing carbon emissions to prevent devastation of the global environment. As the first installment of a four-part series exploring the relationship between conservation and our increasingly urban existence, the New York Academy of Sciences hosted Energy for the Next 20 years: Protecting the Environment and Meeting Our Demands on Thursday, January 12, 2012. The presenting partners for this symposium included Hot Topics in Green Science and Sustainability and The Nature Conservancy. Click here to view the eBriefing of part two of the series, Creating the Next Conservation Movement – Or Do We Even Need One?.

David Roberts, who covers energy politics for, moderated the symposium and began by detailing the situation. As hundreds of millions of people in developing countries are becoming less impoverished, the demand for energy is escalating, leading to a depletion of natural materials such as coal, rare earth metals, and oil. Concomitantly, our environment is in jeopardy if we continue emitting greenhouse gases at the current rate. Robert posed this conundrum to the panel of conservationists, energy researchers, and energy policy experts, inviting them to discuss the difficulties as well as the potential opportunities.

Jesse Jenkins, the Director of the Energy and Climate Program at the Breakthrough Institute, elaborated on the current state of energy poverty and its relationship to climate change. Energy poverty refers to the use of polluting fuels and inefficient methods of energy production to meet basic energy needs. Globally, more than 1 billion people lack access to electricity, with 2.5 billion burning dung and wood for their primary energy needs. Among this group, 2 million die annually because of indoor air pollution, half of which are children under the age of 5, as reported by the World Heath Organization. Jenkins emphasized that introducing electricity into these impoverished regions is essential to alleviating this humanitarian crisis.

Given the compounding burden on our energy resources, Jenkins emphasized the urgency for innovative energy production techniques to prevent further degradation of our environment. To mitigate global warming, carbon emissions need to be reduced by 50% over the next 40 years, according to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For this reduction to occur in conjunction with the expanding energy demand, Jenkins believes that by mid-century all of our energy must be derived from sources free of greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving this goal will require innovative solutions to improve the performance of clean energy options as well as to create affordable energy solutions for developing countries.

The world's demand for energy is increasing because of the expanding global population and the modernization of developing countries. The development of innovative, low-carbon emitting methods of energy production are in need to meet the growing demand, while preventing further devastation to the environment. (Image courtesy of Stewart Brand)

Discussion among the panel transitioned to the current methods being employed to meet the burgeoning energy demand, as well as the future opportunities in clean energy technology. Jeff Opperman, the Nature Conservancy's Senior Advisor for Sustainable Hydropower and Water Management, discussed the role of hydropower, energy derived from the power of flowing or falling water. Hydropower provides 20% of the world's electricity, though Opperman explained that the type of power it provides is far more valuable than the amount of energy produced. Hydroelectric dams provide a continuous source of power, which can be rapidly accessed when demand for electricity peaks. This load following, or peaking, power is crucial during times of peak demand, such as hot summer afternoons when many air conditioners are activated at once. The consistent and reliable power it provides helps to supplement intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power. During periods of calm winds or cloudy skies, for example, hydropower can serve as backup source of power.

While hydropower is a viable alternative energy solution, Opperman described the limitations associated with the installation of hydroelectric dams. Dams can serve as barriers within rivers, altering the behavioral patterns of animals within the water. They also modify river height and flow patterns both upstream and downstream of the structures. Upstream, riverside communities may flood, forcing a displacement of the residents. Downstream, those who rely on natural flooding as a method of irrigation for agricultural production will no longer have this periodic water resource. Therefore, with hydroelectricity use predicted to double globally, Opperman believes that future projects must be planned to fit into the natural ecosystem, limiting the impact on surrounding resources.

Developing alternative energy sources to power our vehicles poses a unique challenge that cannot be solved by resources like wind and hydropower, said Joe Fargione, Lead Scientist for the Nature Conservancy's North American Region. The transportation sector can be divided into two main groups: passenger cars and larger industrial transportation vehicles (i.e., long-haul trucking, airplanes). Fargione explained that passenger vehicles that travel less than 40 miles per day and return to the same location every evening are good candidates for reengineering to use batteries as a power source. However, advancements in battery technology are required for the development of electrically powered, large industrial vehicles. As an alternative, liquid fuels derived from biological materials are being developed to replace diesel, though Fargione described the current methods as inefficient. Converting one-third of the country's yearly harvested corn into the biofuel corn ethanol yields only 6% of the energy demanded by the transportation sector. More efficient forms of biofuel are being developed from other types of biomass, such as dedicated energy crops and waste from forest products, though these options are not yet economically feasible. Fargione emphasized that innovation is necessary to reduce the cost of these liquid alternatives to diesel.

Stewart Brand, co-founder and president of The Long Now Foundation as well as co-founder of Global Business Network, discussed the benefits of meeting our expanding energy needs using nuclear reactors. To generate 1 gigawatt of electricity per year, 250 square miles of wind turbine-covered land or 50 square miles of solar panels are needed. Stewart explained that relying solely on these dilute energy sources requires a tremendous amount of space and contributes to the degradation of the landscape. Stewart argued that energy production through more concentrated methods, such as nuclear reactors, should be integrated into our future vision of energy solutions. As with hydroelectricity, nuclear power provides a continuous source of base load electricity, necessary to supplement other forms of intermittent energy, such as solar and wind power. Stewart explained that minimal nuclear-spent fuel, the byproduct from nuclear reactions, is produced, which can be safely contained for centuries in dry cast storage. Once in storage, the spent fuel can be buried underground in areas like New Mexico, where the salty, dry ground limits the danger of ground water contamination. The spent fuel may also be retained for future reprocessing in more efficient, technologically superior next-generation reactors. Stewart concluded by highlighting the advancements in nuclear fusion, the generation of energy through the fusion of hydrogen atoms. Though this technology is still being developed, the eventual inclusion of fusion as an energy resource will drastically alter the future of energy production by providing a virtually unlimited energy supply with no potential for meltdown.

Arne Jungjohann, the Director for the Environment and Global Dialogue Program of the Heinrich Boell Foundation, provided the opposite perspective on nuclear energy and discussed how Germany is currently phasing out all nuclear energy facilities, aiming to meet that demand with renewable energy. Germany's energy needs are substantial because of its sizeable population of 80 million residents as well as its strong economic dependence on industry. In 2000, 95% of Germany's electricity was derived from fossil fuel combustion and nuclear reactions, with only 5% generated through renewable methods. By 2011, this percentage increased to 20%, as a result of a surge in wind and solar power initiatives. Jungjohann portrayed the modern landscape of Germany as having windmills visible on the northern landscape and photovoltaic cells, or solar panels, on the rooftops of structures throughout the south.

Jungjohann described this evolution as the outcome of the common understanding on the importance of clean energy throughout the country. Strategies were developed to attract foreign investors interested in advancing solar and wind technology, with the support of the German government. German citizens view the expansion of the renewable sector as economically advantageous, in part because of increased employment opportunities, and perceive renewable energy as an integral source of electricity on the power grid to replace fossil fuel imports. Among German political parties, there exists a strong consensus on climate change. Different governments have implemented long-term policies, such as energy and environmental taxes, to mitigate the potential devastation to the environment. The ruling center-right coalition’s goal is to increase the share of renewables in the power sector to 80% by mid-century, while the Green Party envision 100% renewable energies by 2040 the latest. Jungjohann emphasized that this understanding of an industrial strategy for ecological modernization has made Germany a world leader in renewable technologies. Though there are still challenges to overcome, Jungjohann thinks that Germany will have an advantage as the first to transition towards a flexible, decentralized renewable system.

Use the tab above to find multimedia from this event.

Media available from panel discussion featuring:
Stewart Brand (Long Now Foundation)
Joe Fargione, PhD (The Nature Conservancy)
Jesse Jenkins (Breakthrough Institute)
Arne Jungjohann (Heinrich Boell Foundation)
Jeff Opperman, PhD (Nature Conservancy)
Moderator: David Roberts (

Presented by

  • New York Academy of Sciences
  • The Nature Conservancy

Energy for the Next 20 Years: Panel Discussion, Part One

Moderator: David Roberts (

Energy for the Next 20 Years: Panel Discussion, Part Two

Moderator: David Roberts (


The Nature Conservancy is a charitable organization that works to preserve Earth's natural resources and beauty. is a news site providing environmental news, commentary, and advice. Their climate and energy subsection can be accessed here.

The Breakthrough Institute is a think-tank that works on energy and climate change, health care, social inequality, and human rights.

The Long Now Foundation is a private organization that seeks to take the long view of cultural, social, and environmental problems.

The Heinrich Boell Foundation (Heinrich Böll Stiftung) is an independent political foundation affiliated with the German Green Party. Its main tenets are ecology and sustainability, democracy and human rights, self-determination and justice.

Journal Articles

Stewart Brand

Agoramoorthy, G: Nuclear power: India should exploit renewable energy. Nature 2012;481(7380):145.

Anzai K, Ban N, Ozawa T, et al. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: Facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2012;50(1):2-8.

Gu YG, Wang ZH, Lu SH, et al. Multivariate stastical and GIS-based approach to identify source of anthropogenic impacts on metallic elements in sediments from the mid Guangdong coasts, China. Environ. Pollut. 2012;163C:248-255.

Shozugawa K, Nogawa N, Matsuo M. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Environ. Pollut. 2012;163C:243-247.

Joe Fargione

Ji X J, Huang H, Nie ZK, et al. Fuels and chemicals from hemicellulose sugars. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 2012.

Ridley CE, Clark CM, Leduc SD, et al. Biofuels: Network analysis of the literature reveals key environmental and economic unknowns. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012.

Stokstad E. Biofuels. Engineered superbugs boost hopes of turning seaweed into fuel. Science 2012;335(6066):273.

Xie XN, Wang Y, Wang Q et al. A percolating membrane with superior polarization and power retention for rechargeable energy storage. Adv. Mater. 2012;24(1):76-81. doi: 10.1002/adma.201103677.

Jesse Jenkins

Armstrong, L. Towards a sustainable energy future: Realities and opportunities. Philos. Transact. A. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2011;369(1942):1857-65.

Bone AV, Murray I, Myers A, et al. Will drivers for home energy efficiency harm occupant health? Perspect. Public Health 2010;130(5):233-238.

Costello AM, Maslin H, Montgomery AM, et al. Global health and climate change: Moving from denial and catastrophic fatalism to positive action. Philos. Transact. A. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2011;369(1942):1866-82.

Zhou Z, Dionisio KL, Arku RE, et al. Household and community poverty, biomass use, and air pollution in Accra, Ghana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2011;108(27):11028-33.

Arne Jungjohann

McGarry S, Knight C. The potential for harvesting energy from the movement of trees. Sensors (Basel) 2011;11(10):9275-9299.

Miller JH, Potty GR, Vigness-Raposa KJ, et al. Environmental assessment of offshore wind power generation: Effect on a noise budget. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2012;730:519-522.

Santra PK, Kamat PV. Mn-doped quantum dot sensitized solar cells. A strategy to boost efficiency over 5%. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012.

Shibu ES, Sonoda A, Tao Z, et al. Photofabrication of fullerene-shelled quantum dots supramolecular nanoparticles for solar energy harvesting. ACS Nano. 2012.

Jeff Opperman

Guerrier G, Paul R, Sananikhom P, et al. Strategic success for hydropower in Laos. Science 2011;334(6052):38.

Stone, R. Hydropower. The legacy of the Three Gorges. Science 2011;333(6044):817.

Yang K, Deng X, Li XL, et al. Impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation on river ecosystem and landscape: A review. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2011;22(5):1359-1367.


David Roberts
e-mail | website


Stewart Brand

Long Now Foundation
e-mail | website | publications

Stewart Brand is co-founder of Global Business Network and president of The Long Now Foundation. He created and edited the Whole Earth Catalog (National Book Award), and co-founded the Hackers Conference and The WELL. His books include The Clock of the Long Now, How Buildings Learn, and The Media Lab. His recent book, titled Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto, is published by Penguin in the U.S. and Atlantic in the UK. He graduated in Biology from Stanford and served as an Infantry officer.

Joe Fargione, PhD

The Nature Conservancy
e-mail | website | publications

Joe Fargione is Lead Scientist for The Nature Conservancy's North America Region. Fargione's research seeks ways to balance human energy and food demands with environmental conservation. Solutions include appropriate siting of new energy development and new sources for conservation funding including compensatory mitigation payments, carbon offsets, and creating markets that value nature's benefits. Prior to joining The Nature Conservancy, Fargione received his PhD in Ecology from the University of Minnesota and held faculty positions at the University of New Mexico and Purdue University. His dozens of scientific publications have been cited thousands of times and have been covered by NBC Nightly News, Time Magazine, and The New York Times, among others. Fargione is a native of Minneapolis, MN, where he resides with his wife and two children.

Jesse Jenkins

Breakthrough Institute
e-mail | website

Jesse Jenkins is Director of the Energy and Climate Program at the Breakthrough Institute, an independent public policy think tank based in Oakland, California. He is the lead author or co-author of numerous reports and analysis including "Bridging the Clean Energy Valleys of Death," "Climate Pragmatism," "Energy Emergence: Rebound and Backfire as Emergent Phenomena," "Where Good Technologies Come From," "Post-Partisan Power," "Strengthening Clean Energy Competitiveness," and widely-cited analysis of Congressional climate change legislation. Jenkins's work and analysis have been featured in The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, Time Magazine, Newsweek, and other major media outlets. He has appeared on National Public Radio, MSNBC, and in the pages of Forbes, Atlantic Monthly, San Francisco Chronicle, Yale Environment 360, and other publications. Jenkins has also served for four years as Associate Director of Breakthrough Generation, the Institute's annual young leaders fellowship program. Prior to joining Breakthrough in June 2008, he worked at the Renewable Northwest Project to advance the development of the Pacific Northwest's abundant renewable energy potential, and he is an alumnus of the Robert D. Clark Honors College at the University of Oregon.

Arne Jungjohann

Heinrich Boell Foundation
e-mail | website

Arne Jungjohann is the Director for the Environment and Global Dialogue Program of the Heinrich Boell Foundation in Washington DC, a global think tank of the German Green Party. He is recognized for his work on promoting solutions towards a low-carbon economy on both sides of the Atlantic. Before joining HBF, Jungjohann worked as a senior advisor for the Green Party in the German Parliament. He has extensive experience on environmental, energy, and climate legislation. Among other things, he worked on the implementation of the EU's cap and trade scheme, Germany's nuclear phase-out, and the Renewable Energy Act. Jungjohann holds a Masters degree in Political Science from the Free University Berlin and has a passion for soccer.

Jeff Opperman, PhD

Nature Conservancy
e-mail | website | publications

Jeff Opperman has been working to protect rivers and lakes for nearly 15 years. He has provided strategic and scientific guidance to freshwater conservation projects across the United States as well as in China, Africa, and Latin America. At The Nature Conservancy, Opperman focuses on improving the environmental sustainability of hydropower and water management both by advancing sound policies and by supporting on-the-ground projects. He is a member of the governing board of the Low Impact Hydropower Institute (LIHI), which certifies "environmentally preferable" hydropower, and he recently served on an Independent Review Panel that provided recommendations for floodplain management to California's Department of Water Resources. Opperman earned his BS in Biology from Duke University and a PhD in Ecosystem Science from the University of California, Berkeley. He then studied floodplain ecology during a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of California, Davis. His scientific and policy research has been published in journals such as Science, BioScience, and Ecological Applications. Opperman strives to communicate the challenges and opportunities of protecting fresh water through his "Cool Green Science" blog on

Kelly Lombardo, PhD

Kelly Lombardo is a postdoctoral research associate at Stony Brook University, examining the impact of climate change on eastern U.S. coastal winter cyclones. She received her PhD in atmospheric science from Stony Brook University, studying the modification of organized severe convective systems by the Atlantic coastal waters. Lombardo earned her MS in atmospheric science from the University at Albany, SUNY, where she analyzed observed convectively-coupled equatorial Rossby waves and explored their relationship to tropical cyclogenesis.


Presented by

  • New York Academy of Sciences
  • The Nature Conservancy