Support The World's Smartest Network

Help the New York Academy of Sciences bring late-breaking scientific information about the COVID-19 pandemic to global audiences. Please make a tax-deductible gift today.

This site uses cookies.
Learn more.


This website uses cookies. Some of the cookies we use are essential for parts of the website to operate while others offer you a better browsing experience. You give us your permission to use cookies, by continuing to use our website after you have received the cookie notification. To find out more about cookies on this website and how to change your cookie settings, see our Privacy policy and Terms of Use.

We encourage you to learn more about cookies on our site in our Privacy policy and Terms of Use.


Oral-Based Diagnostics

Oral-Based Diagnostics
Reported by
Bob Roehr

Posted January 04, 2007

Presented By

New York Academy of Sciences


Blood and urine samples are the basis for over 90% of routine medical tests performed today. But as the use of diagnostic tests proliferates, there is an increasing call for less invasive procedures in clinical practice. Oral-based diagnostics are a leading alternative, and their use has expanded rapidly over the last decade.

The New York Academy of Sciences played a catalytic role in the development of the current generation of saliva-based diagnostics through a conference on the subject in 1993. The second conference was held October 10–13, 2006, at the Emerald Pointe Resort, near Atlanta, Georgia.

This meeting featured presentations from basic researchers, clinicians, informatics specialists, device engineers, and entrepreneurs who can shape the science behind oral-based diagnostics into viable market products, and was designed to promote communication and integration of the various communities in the development to move findings in basic research into applications of clinical diagnostics.

Web Sites

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
NIDCR is the National Institutes of Health lead institute in developing oral-based diagnostics.

Pathway to Product Development
Summarizes the goals, challenges, recommendations, and implementation strategies NIDCR is taking to advance development of oral-based diagnostics.

Development and Validation of Technologies for Saliva-Based Diagnostics
The NIDCR funding application describes what the agency is looking for in terms of research objectives.

Workshop on Development of New Technologies for Saliva and Other Oral Fluid-Based Diagnostics
The 1999 report by NIDCR (PDF, 78 KB).

Salivary Proteome Knowledge Base
Database being developed by the Human Salivary Proteome Project. Login required.

The Scripps Research Institute: Saliva Proteome Project
Founded by NIDCR to catalog and annotate the components of saliva.

Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance
A worldwide group of clinical and laboratory researchers working to develop the International Sjögren's Syndrome Registry.

UCLA Collaborative Oral Fluid Diagnostic Research Center
The center is working to develop micro- and nano-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) for the detection of salivary diagnostic analytes for point-of-care applications.

UCLA Human Salivary Proteome Project
A multi-institute, interdisciplinary effort to generate a complete catalogue of all salivary secretory proteins using high-throughput proteomic technologies.

UCLA: Micro/Nanoelectromechanical Systems (MEMS/NEMS) Presentation 1
UCLA: Micro/Nanoelectromechanical Systems (MEMS/NEMS) Presentation 2
PowerPoint presentations on how microchip technology has been used to diagnose oral cancer in saliva.

University of Texas, Austin: McDevitt Research Laboratory
Information about lab-on-a-chip sensor technology; includes description of saliva diagnostics funded by NIDCR.

Journal Articles

de Lemos, J. A. 2006. The latest and greatest new biomarkers: which ones should we measure for risk prediction in our practice? Arch. Intern. Med. 166: 2428-2430.

Denny, P. C., P. A. Denny, J. Takashima, et al. 2006. A novel saliva test for caries risk assessment. J. Calif. Dent. Assoc. 34: 287-290, 292-294.

Erickson, B. E. 2005. Detecting doping. Anal. Chem. 77: 211 A.

Hardt, M., H. E. Witkowska, S. Webb, et al. 2005. Assessing the effects of diurnal variation on the composition of human parotid saliva: quantitative analysis of native peptides using iTRAQ reagents. Anal. Chem. 77: 4947-4954.

Hodinka, R. L., T. Nagashunmugam & D. Malamud. 1998. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus antibodies in oral fluids. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5: 419-426. Full Text

Holm-Hansen, C., G. Tong, C. Davis, et al. 2004. Comparison of oral fluid collectors for use in a rapid point-of-care diagnostic device. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11: 909-912. Full Text

Hu, S., Y. Xie, P. Ramachandran, et al. 2005. Large-scale identification of proteins in human salivary proteome by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Proteomics 5: 1714-1728.

Huang, Y., E. L. Mather, J. L. Bell, et al. 2002. MEMS-based sample preparation for molecular diagnostics. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 372: 49-65.

Jiang, W. W., B. Masayesva, M. Zahurak, et al. 2005. Increased mitochondrial DNA content in saliva associated with head and neck cancer. Clin. Cancer Res. 11: 2486-2491. Full Text

Kivlighan, K. T. & D. A. Granger. 2006. Salivary α-amylase response to competition: relation to gender, previous experience, and attitudes. Psychoneuroendocrinology 31: 703-714.

Lawrence, H. P. 2002. Salivary markers of systemic disease: noninvasive diagnosis of disease and monitoring of general health. J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 68: 170-174. (PDF, 262 KB) Full Text

Li, Y., X. Zhou, M. A. St. John, et al. 2004. RNA profiling of cell-free saliva using microarray technology. J. Dent. Res. 83: 199-203. Full Text

Malamud, D. 2006. Salivary diagnostics: the future is now. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 137: 284-286.

Malamud, D. 1997. Oral diagnostic testing for detecting human immunodeficiency virus-1 antibodies: a technology whose time has come. Am. J. Med. 102: 9-14.

Malamud, D., H. Bau, S. Niedbala, et al. 2005. Point detection of pathogens in oral samples. Adv. Dent. Res. 18: 12-16. Full Text

McKie, A., A. Vyse & C. Maple. 2002. Novel methods for the detection of microbial antibodies in oral fluid. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2: 18-24.

Mukhopadhyay, R. 2006. Devices to drool for. Anal. Chem. 78: 4255-4259.

Niedbala, S., K. Kardos, S. Salamone, et al. 2004. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. J. Anal. Toxicol. 28: 546-552.

Park, N. J., Y. Li, T. Yu, et al. 2006. Characterization of RNA in saliva. Clin. Chem. 52: 988-994.

Park, N. J., X. Zhou, T. Yu, et al. 2007. Characterization of salivary RNA by cDNA library analysis. Arch. Oral Biol. 52: 30-35.

Penn, D. & W. Potts. 1998. How do major histocompatibility complex genes influence odor and mating preferences? Adv. Immunol. 69: 411-436.

Redon, R., S. Ishikawa, K. R. Fitch, et al. 2006. Global variation in copy number in the human genome. Nature 444: 428-429.

Shugars, D. C., S. P. Sweet, D. Malamud, et al. 2002. Saliva and inhibition of HIV-1 infection: molecular mechanisms. Oral Dis. 8 Suppl. 2: 169-175.

Slaughter, Y. A. & D. Malamud. 2005. Oral diagnostics for the geriatric populations: current status and future prospects. Dent. Clin. North Am. 49: 445-461.

Slavkin, H. C. 1998. Toward molecularly based diagnostics for the oral cavity. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 129: 1138-1143.

Song, L., A. Ahn & D. R. Walt. 2006. Fiber-optic microsphere-based arrays for multiplexed biological warfare agent detection. Anal. Chem. 78: 1023-1033.

Streckfus, C. F. & L. R. Bigler. 2002. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Oral Dis. 8: 69-76. Full Text

Taba, M., Jr., J. Kinney, A. S. Kim, et al. 2005. Diagnostic biomarkers for oral and periodontal diseases. Dent. Clin. North Am. 49: 551-571.

Wesolowski, L. G., D. A. MacKellar, S. N. Facente, et al. 2006. Post-marketing surveillance of OraQuick whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV testing. AIDS 20: 1661-1666.

Wong, D. T. 2006. Salivary diagnostics powered by nanotechnologies, proteomics and genomics. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 137: 313-321.


Daniel Malamud, PhD

New York University College of Dentistry
email | web site | publications

Daniel Malamud is currently professor at the New York University department of basic science and craniofacial biology. He is also the director of the HIV/AIDS research program. Malamud specializes in the development of anti-HIV agents and oral-based diagnostics; his research deals with HIV pathogenesis, the design of anti-HIV drugs, and novel diagnostics using oral samples. His investigations in these areas have involved human salivary proteins that inhibit HIV infectivity and the discovery and development of anti-HIV compounds that can be used to prevent HIV infection in women.

Malamud received his PhD from the University of Cincinnati. After completing his postdoctoral training at the Temple University Medical School department of pathology, he worked at Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital. He then moved to the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine as associate professor and went on to become chairman of the Department of Biochemistry, before joining the faculty of NYU. Malamud has received the Research Career Development Award, the Basic Science Teaching Award, and the University of Pennsylvania Lindback Teaching Award. He has served as Penn-Israel exchange scientist and as consultant for the French Ministry for External Relations.

R. Sam Niedbala, PhD

Lehigh University
email | web site | publications

R. Sam Niedbala is professor of practice at the Lehigh University Department of Chemistry. He is interested in exploring technologies useful for developing applications in human clinical medicine and is currently developing proteins to allow specific targeting of biological markers of interest. As needed, required software is also developed to facilitate these tasks. Recent projects involve developing detection methods for new biological markers in human oral fluids to detect drugs and infectious diseases.

Niedbala received his PhD in chemistry from Lehigh University. He is the former chief science officer and a founder of OraSure Technologies, Inc. (OTI), which is a publicly traded diagnostic company that develops, manufactures, and markets proprietary diagnostic products capable of detecting substances in a number of different body fluids, including saliva. Niedbala holds professional memberships in the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Society of Forensic Toxicologists, and The American College of Forensic Examiners. He holds numerous patents and over forty peer-reviewed articles and book chapters in numerous areas of technology and medicine.


Len Abbott

Quest Diagnostics Incorporated
web site

William R. Abrams, PhD

New York University College of Dentistry
email | web site | publications

Arie V. Nieuw Amerongen, PhD

Vrije Universiteit
email | publications

Per Brandtzaeg, DDS, PhD

University of Oslo
email | web site | publications

C. Sue Carter, PhD

University of Illinois at Chicago
email | web site | publications

James Clarke, PhD

International Diagnostic Systems Corp

Edward J. Cone, PhD

email | publications

Paul C. Denny, PhD

University of Southern California
email | web site | publications

Philip C. Fox, DDS

email | publications

Elain Fu, PhD

University of Washington
email | web site | publications

Vincent Gau, PhD

Gene Fluidics
email | web site | publications

Michael Glick, DMD

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
(now affiliated with A.T. Still University)
email | publications

Douglas Granger, PhD

Pennsylvania State University
email | web site | publications

John S. Greenspan, PhD

University of California, San Francisco
email | web site | publications

Marilyn A. Huestis, PhD

National Institute on Drug Abuse
email | publications

David R. Jacobs, Jr., PhD

University of Minnesota
email | web site | publications

William G. Kohn, DDS

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
email | publications

Ira Lamster, DDS

Columbia University
email | publications

Loralie J. Langman, PhD

Mayo Clinic
email | web site | publications

Antoon J. M. Ligtenberg, PhD

ACTA (Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam)
email | publications

Jeffrey A. Lindeman, PhD

Nixon Peabody, LLP
email | web site

Duncan A. MacKellar

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
email | web site

Andreas Manns, PhD

Dräger Safety AG & Co.
email | web site

John T. McDevitt, PhD

The University of Texas at Austin
email | web site | publications

James E. Melvin, DDS, PhD

University of Rochester
email | publications

Frank Oppenheim, DMD, PhD

Boston University School of Medicine
email | web site | publications

George Preti, PhD

Monell Chemical Senses Center
email | web site | publications

Christoph Ramseier, DMD

Michigan Center for Oral Health Research
email | web site | publications

Miriam P. Rosin, PhD

BC Cancer Agency
email | publications

Anup Singh, PhD

Sandia National Laboratories
email | web site | publications

Steven L. Spitalnik, MD

Columbia University
email | web site | publications

E. Michelle Starke, PhD

University of Washington
email | web site | publications

Lawrence A. Tabak, DDS, PhD

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
email | web site | publications

H. J. Tanke, PhD

Leiden University Medical Center
email | web site | publications

David Walt, PhD

Tufts University
email | web site | publications

David Wong, DMD, DMSc

University of California, Los Angeles
email | web site | publications

Netty D. Zegers, PhD

TNO Defence, Security, and Safety
email | publications

Bob Roehr

Bob Roehr is a biomedical writer with a focus on HIV and infectious disease who is based in Washington, DC.