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SARS in the Context of Emerging Infectious Diseases

SARS in the Context of Emerging Infectious Diseases

Presented By

New York Academy of Sciences


On May 17, 2003, leading scientists, physicians, public-health officers, and pharmaceutical representatives met at the New York Academy of Sciences for the first multidisciplinary assembly held in response to the outbreak of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome).

This eBriefing documents the scientific community's understanding of SARS at the time, as well as the many questions that remained unanswered. Where did the SARS coronavirus come from? Did it start in an infected animal and mutate to infect humans? Why do some people succumb to its grip while others survive? Why does it seem to claim more victims in China than in other countries? What is the natural course of the disease? Are patients who recover still able to spread the infection to others? Can we create targeted therapies that throw a wrench in the viral replication process? Can we develop a vaccine to prevent SARS infection, and if so, what is the best approach?

Use the tabs above to find a meeting report and multimedia from this event.


Larry Anderson (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Scott Hammer (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center)
Frederick G. Hayden (University of Virginia School of Medicine)
David Ho (Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center)
Kathryn V. Holmes (University of Colorado Health Sciences Center)
C. Richter King (GenVec, Inc.)
Thomas G. Ksiazek (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
John La Montagne (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)
Catherine Laughlin (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)
Marcelle Layton (New York City Department of Health)
W. Ian Lipkin (Columbia University)
Donald E. Low (Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto)
Paul S. Masters (New York State Department of Health)
Thomas Monath (Acambis, Inc.)
Malik Peiris (University of Hong Kong)
C. J. Peters (University of Texas Medical Branch)
Allan Rosenfield (Columbia University)
Linda Saif (Ohio State University, Wooster)
Chen Zhu (Shanghai Second Medical University)

Reading Room


Conference Transcripts

Conference Highlights

A Snapshot in Headlines

SARS: two weeks in the life

These headlines offer a snapshot of SARS, from breaking headlines over the course of barely two weeks in early 2004. Some of the sites listed may require registration.

Animal link to human health. EPHA (Feb 17, 2004).

Caesars withdraws bid for Indiana license. Forbes: Breaking News (Feb 17, 2004).

South Africa: firms fight SARS on workers' aids perks. AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine (Feb 11, 2004).

Lessons learned: how China's fight against SARS affects its bird-flu efforts. International (Feb 10, 2004).

Hong Kong investigates possible SARS outbreak in hospital ward. Radio Australia (Feb 10, 2004).

WHO SARS international reference and verfication laboratory network: policy and procedures in the inter-epidemic period. WHO (Feb 5, 2004). [PDF 27KB]

Update on influenza A(H5N1) and SARS: interim recommendations for enhanced U.S. surveillance, testing, and infection control. CDC Sars News (Feb 4, 2004).

Antibody potently neutralizes SARS virus. Reuters Health (Feb 2, 2004).

SARS, then bird flu: Southern China's Guangdong endures another virus scare. International (Feb 2, 2004).

Animals, Urban Prosperity Mean SARS-Like Pandemics Will Remain. Pacific News: Health (Feb 1, 2004).

WHO scolds China after new SARS case confirmed. CBC.CA (Jan 31, 2004).

New case of laboratory-confirmed SARS in Guangdong, China. WHO (Jan 31, 2004).

China announces new SARS case; WHO calls for urgent investigation. CBC.CA (Jan 31, 2004).

China confirms news SARS case. CBC.CA (Jan 31, 2004).

China announces new SARS case. International (Jan 31, 2004).

SARS mutated to more infectious form: mapping study. CBC.CA (Jan 31, 2004).

Web Sites

Academic Research

Complete Genome of the SARS Coronavirus
From the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Coronavirus Taxonomy
From the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

CSEI Emerging Infections: SARS
From the Center for the Study of Emerging Infections.

NEJM: Information on SARS
From the New England Journal of Medicine.

Science: Progress on SARS
From Science magazine.

U.S. Government Agencies

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology

Food and Drug Administration

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Centers for Disease Control

U.S. Office of Global Health Affairs

World Health Organization Resources

Cumulative Reported Probable Cases

Global Scientific Meeting on SARS

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Situation Updates on SARS

Other International Efforts


China Ministry of Health (in Chinese)

Hong Kong Department of Health

Hong Kong Department of Health (in traditional Chinese)

Hong Kong Department of Health (in simplified Chinese)

Malaysia Ministry of Health

Philippines National Epidemiology Center

Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Health

Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Health (in Indonesian)

Singapore Ministry of Health

South Korea National Institute of Health SARS Site

Taiwan Center for Disease Control

Taiwan Center for Disease Control (in Chinese)

Thailand Ministry of Public Health

Thailand Ministry of Public Health (in Thai)

Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City


Health Canada

Health Canada (in French)

Toronto Public Health


France Ministry of Health (in French)

Germany Ministry of Health (in German)

Italy Ministry of Health (in Italian)

Spain Ministry of Health (in Spanish)

Switzerland Office of Public Health (in French)

Switzerland Federal Office of Public Health (in German)

U.K. Department of Health

South America

Argentina SRAS (in Spanish and English)


Larry Anderson

Session II: Clinical Spectrum of SARS Infection

Booth C. M., L. M. Matukas, G. A. Tomlinson et al. 2003. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the greater Toronto area. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 289: 2801-2809.

Centers for Disease Control. 2003. Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Rep. 52: 405-411. Full Text

K. L. E. Hon, C. W. Leung, W. T. F. Cheng et al. 2003. Clinical presentations and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome in children. Lancet 361: 1701.

Lee N., D. Hui, A. Wu et al. 2003. A major outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 1986-1994.

Peiris J. S., S. T. Lai, L. L. Poon et al. 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 361: 1319-1325.

Poutanen S. M., D. E. Low, B. Henry et al. 2003. Identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Canada. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 1995-2005.

Tsang K. W., P. L. Ho, G. C. Ooi et al. 2003. A cluster of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 1977-1985.

World Health Organization. 2003. Cumulative number of reported probable cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Full Text

Frederick Hayden

Session III: Lessons in Interventions for SARS

Banerjee, S., K. Narayanan, T. Mizutani & S. Makino. 2002. Murine coronavirus replication-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation promotes interleukin-6 production and virus replication in cultured cells. J. Virol. 76: 5937-59348.

Belshe, R. B., & W. C. Gruber. 2001. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of cold-adapted, live, attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza vaccine in adults and children. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 356: 1947-1951.

Buckingham, S. C., H. S. Jafri, A. J. Bush et al. 2002. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dexamethasone in severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection: effects on RSV quantity and clinical outcome. J. Infect. Dis. 185: 1222-1228.

Domachowske, J. B., C. A. Bonville, D. Ali-Ahmad et al. 2001. Glucocorticoid administration accelerates mortality of pneumovirus-infected mice. J. Infect. Dis.. 184: 1518-1523.

Galbraith, A. W., J. S. Oxford, G. C. Schild & G. I. Watson. 1969. Protective effect of 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride on influenza A2 infections in the family environment: a controlled double-blind study. Lancet 2: 1026-1028.

Hayden, F. G., R. B. Belshe, R. D. Clover et al. 1989. Emergence and apparent transmission of rimantadine-resistant influenza A virus in families. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 1696-1702.

Hayden, F. G., L. Jennings, R. Robson et al. 2000. Oral oseltamivir in human experimental influenza B infection. Antivir. Ther. 5: 205-213.

Kaiser, L., C. Wat, T. Mills et al. 2003. Impact of oseltamivir treatment on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications and hospitalizations. Arch. Internal Med. 28: 1667-1672.

Peiris, J. S. M., C. M. Chu, V. C. C. Cheng et al. 2003. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study. Lancet 361: 1767-1772.

Puhakka, T., M. J. Makela, A. Alanen et al. 1998. Sinusitis in the common cold. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 102: 403-408.

Sung, J. 2003. Preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Centers for Disease Control Webcast (Apr 4).

Thompson, W. W., D. K. Shay, E. Weintraub et al. 2003. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 289: 179-186.

David Ho

Session III: Blocking SARS Virus Fusion

Chan, D. C., & P. S. Kim. 1998. HIV entry and its inhibition. Cell 93: 681-684.

Jiang, S., K. Lin, N. Strick & A. R. Neurath. 1993. HIV-1 inhibition by a peptide. Nature 365: 113.

Kilby, J. M., S. Hopkins, T. M. Venetta et al. 1998. Potent suppression of HIV-1 replication in humans by T-20, a peptide inhibitor of gp41-mediated virus entry. Nat. Med. 4: 1302-1307.

Wild, C. T., D. C. Shugars, T. K. Greenwell et al. 1994. Peptides corresponding to a predictive alpha-helical domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 are potent inhibitors of virus infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 91: 9770-9774. Full Text

Kathryn V. Holmes

Session I: Coronavirus Pathogenesis

Almeida, J. D., & D.A. Tyrrell. 1967. The morphology of three previously uncharacterized human respiratory viruses that grow in organ culture. J. Gen. Virol. 1: 175-178.

Chilvers, M. A., M. McKean, A. Rutman et al. 2001. The effects of coronavirus on human nasal ciliated respiratory epithelium. Eur. Respir. J. 18: 965-970.

Holmes. K. V. 2003. SARS-associated coronavirus. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 1948-1951.

Holmes, K. V., & M. M. C. Lai. 1996. Virology. Raven, New York.

Lai, M. M. C., & K. V. Holmes. 2001. Coronaviridae and their replication. In D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley, Ed. Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Riemann D., A. Kehlen & J. Langner. 1999. CD13—not just a marker in leukemia typing. Immunol. Today 20: 83-88.

Tan, K., B. D. Zelus, R. Meijers et al. 2002. Crystal structure of murine sCEACAM1a[1,4]: a coronavirus receptor in the CEA family. EMBO J. 21: 2076-2086.

Zelus, B. D., J. H. Schickli, D. M. Blau et al. 2003. Conformational changes in the spike glycoprotein of murine coronavirus are induced at 37C either by soluble murine CEACAM1 receptors or by pH 8. J. Virol. 77: 830-840.

C. Richter King

Session III: Adenovirus Vector Technologies for Vaccines

Sullivan, N. J., A. Sanchez, P. E. Rollin et al. 2000. Development of a preventive vaccine for ebola virus infection in primates. Nature 408: 605-609.

Marcelle Layton

Session IV: SARS and Public Health Systems

Leo, Y. S., et al. 2003. Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Rep. 52: 405-411.

Donald Low

Session II: Clinical Experience in Toronto

Booth, C. M., L. M. Matukas, G. A. Tomlinson et al. 2003. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the greater Toronto area. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 289:2801-2809.

Centers for Disease Control. 2003. Cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome cases among protected health-care workers, Toronto, Canada, April 2003. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rep. Full Text

Paul Masters

Session I: Molecular Biology of Coronaviruses

Virion characteristics and coronavirus life cycle

Holmes, K. V. Coronaviruses. 2001. In D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley, Ed. Fields Virology. In Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Lai, M. M. C., & K. V. Holmes. 2001. Coronaviridae: The viruses and their replication. In D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley, Ed. Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Siddell, S. G. 1995. The coronaviridae: an introduction. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.

van der Most, R. G., & W. J. M. Spaan. 1995. Coronavirus replication, transcription, and RNA recombination. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.

Spike protein

Cavanagh, D. 1995. The coronavirus surface 1995. glycoprotein." In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.

de Groot, R. J., W. Luytjes, M. C. Horzinek et al. 1987. Evidence for a coiled-coil structure in the spike proteins of coronaviruses. J. Mol. Biol. 196: 963-966.

Membrane and envelope proteins

Rottier, P. J. M. 1995. The coronavirus membrane glycoprotein. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.

Vennema, H., G.-J. Godeke, J. W. A. Rossen et al. 1996. Nucleocapsid-independent assembly of coronavirus-like particles by co-expression of viral envelope protein genes. EMBO J. 15: 2020-2028.

Nucleocapsid protein

Laude, H., & P. S. Masters. 1995. The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.

Coronavirus reverse genetics

Almazan, F., J. M. Gonzalez, Z. Penzes et al. 2000. Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 97: 5516-5521. Full Text

Casais, R., V. Thiel, S. G. Siddell et al. 2001. Reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. J. Virol. 75: 12359-12369. Full Text

Koetzner, C. A., M. M. Parker, C. S. Ricard et al. 1992. Repair and mutagenesis of the genome of a deletion mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus by targeted RNA recombination. J. Virol. 66: 1841-1848. Full Text

Kuo, L., G.-J. Godeke, M. J. B. Raamsman et al. 2000. Retargeting of coronavirus by substitution of the spike glycoprotein ectodomain: crossing the host cell species barrier. J. Virol. 74: 1393-1406. Full Text

Masters, P. S. 1999. Reverse genetics of the largest RNA viruses. In K. Maramorosch, F. A. Murphy & A. J. Shatkin, Eds. Advances in Virus Research. Academic Press, San Diego.

Thiel, V., J. Herold, B. Schelle & S. G. Siddell. 2001. Infectious RNA transcribed in vitro from a cDNA copy of the human coronavirus genome cloned in vaccinia virus. J. Gen. Virol. 82: 1273-1281. Full Text

van der Most, R. G., L. Heijnen, W. J. M. Spaan & R. J. de Groot. 1992. Homologous RNA recombination allows efficient introduction of site-specific mutations into the genome of coronavirus MHV-A59 via synthetic co-replicating RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 20: 337-381. Full Text

Yount, B., K. M. Curtis & R. S. Baric. 2000. Strategy for systematic assembly of large RNA and DNA genomes: transmissible gastroenteritis virus model. J. Virol. 74: 10600-10611. Full Text

Yount, B., M. R. Denison, S. R. Weiss & R. S. Baric. 2002. Systematic assembly of a full-length infectious cDNA of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59. J. Virol. 76: 11065-11078.

Thomas Monath

Session III: Some Approaches to Vaccine Development

Lyn, T. E. 2003. Doctors use antibodies to treat SARS victims. Reuters Health (Mar 31).

Linda Saif

Session I: Coronavirus Transmission and Persistence

Ballesteros, M. L ., C. M. Sanchez & L. Enjuanes. 1997. Two amino acid changes at the N-terminal of the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus pike protein result in the loss of enteric tropism. Virology 227: 378-388.

Bohl, E. H ., R. K. P. Gupta, M. V. F. Olquin & L. J. Saif. 1972. Antibody responses in serum, colostrum and milk of swine after infection or vaccination with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Infect. Immunol. 6: 289-301. Full Text

Cavanagh, D ., & S. A. Naqi. 2003. Infectious bronchitis. In Y. M. Saif et al., Eds. Diseases of Poultry, 11th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Cho, K. O ., A. Hoet, S. C. Loerch et al. 2001. Evaluation of concurrent shedding of bovine coronavirus via the respiratory and enteric route in feedlot cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62: 1436-1441.

Cho, K. O ., P. R. Nielsen, K. O. Chang et al. 2001. Cross-protection studies of respiratory, calf diarrhea and winter dysentery coronavirus strains in calves and RT-PCR and nested PCR for their detection. Arch. Virol. 146: 2401-2419.

El-Kanawati, Z. R ., H. Tsunemitsu, D. R. Smith & L. J. Saif. 1996. Infection and cross-protection studies of winter dysentery and calf diarrhea bovine coronavirus strains in colostrum-deprived and gnotobiotic calves. Am. J. Vet. Res.. 57: 48-53.

Fouchier, R. A. M ., T. Kuiken, M. Schutten et al. 2003. Aetiology: Koch postulates fulfilled for SARS virus. Nature 423: 240.

Hasoksuz, M ., S. Sreevatsan, K. O. Cho et al. 2002. Molecular analysis of the S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein of respiratory and enteric bovine coronavirus isolates. Virus Res. 84: 101-109.

Hayes, J ., K. Sestak, G. Myers et al. 2000. Evaluation of dual infection of nursery pigs with U. S. strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus. In Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Nidoviruses (Corona and Arteriviruses). Lake Harmony, PA.

Ismail, M. M ., K. O Cho, L. A. Ward et al. 2001. Experimental bovine coronavirus in turkey poults and young chicken. Avian Dis. 45: 157-163.

Jabrane, A ., C. Girard & Y. Elazhary. 1994. Pathogenicity of porcine respiratory coronavirus isolated in Quebec. Can. Vet. J. 35: 86-92.

Kim, L ., J. Hayes, P. Lewis et al. 2000. Molecular characterization and pathogenesis of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) field isolates co-circulating in a swine herd. Arch. Virol. 145: 1133-1147.

Lathrop, S. L ., T. E. Wittum, S. C. Loerch et al. 2000. Antibody titers against bovine coronavirus and shedding of the virus via the respiratory tract in feedlot cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 61: 1057-1061.

Labarque, G ., K. Van Reeth, S. Van Gucht et al. 2002. Porcine reproductive-respiratory syndrome virus infection predisposes pigs for respiratory signs upon exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Vet. Microbiol. 88: 1-12.

Laude, H ., K. V. Reeth & M. Pensaert. 1993. Porcine respiratory coronavirus: molecular features and virus-host interactions. Vet. Res. 24: 125-150.

Olsen, C. W. 1993. A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus: molecular biology, immunopathogenesis, clinical aspects, and vaccination. Vet. Microbiol. 36: 1-37.

Pensaert, M. B. 1999. Porcine epidemic diarrhea. In B. Straw et al., Eds. Diseases of Swine, 8th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Saif, L. J ., E. H. Bohl & R. K. P. Gupta. 1972. Isolation of porcine immunoglobulins and determination of the immunoglobulin classes of transmissible gastroenteritis viral antibodies. Infection Immunity 6: 600-609. Full Text

Saif, L. J ., & R. A. Heckert. 1990. Enteric coronaviruses. In L. J. Saif & K. W. Theil, Eds. Viral Diarrheas of Man and Animals. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Saif, L. J., & R. Wesley. 1999. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus. In B. Straw et al., Eds. Diseases of Swine, 8th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Saif, L. J. 2000. Coronaviruses: update on diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of bovine coronavirus-associated calf diarrhea, winter dysentery and shipping fever. In Proceedings of the Iowa Veterinary Medical Association. Ames, IA.

Sestak, K ., I. Lanza, S.-K. Park et al. 1996. Contribution of passive immunity to porcine respiratory coronavirus to protection against transmissible gastroenteritis virus challenge exposure in suckling pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57: 664-671.

Sestak, K ., R. K. Meister, J. R. Hayes et al. 1999. Active immunity and T-cell populations in pigs intraperitoneally inoculated with baculovirus-expressed transmissible gastroenteritis virus structural proteins. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 70: 203-221.

Sestak, K., & L. J. Saif. 2002. Porcine coronaviruses. In J. J. Zimmerman et al., Eds. Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Swine. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Shimizu, M ., & Y. Shimizu. 1979. Effects of ambient temperatures on clinical and immune responses of pigs infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Veterinary Microbiol.. 4: 109-116. Full Text

Shoup, D. I ., D. J. Jackwood & L. J. Saif. 1997. Active and passive immune responses to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in swine inoculated with recombinant baculovirus-expressed TGEV spike (S) glycoprotein vaccines. Am. J. Vet. Res. 58: 242-250.

Tsunemitsu, H ., H. Reed, Z. El-Kanawati et al. 1995. Isolation of coronaviruses antigenically indistinguishable from bovine coronavirus from a sambar and white tailed deer and waterbuck with diarrhea. J. Clinical Microbiol. 33: 3264-3269. Full Text

VanCott, J. L ., T. A. Brim, R. A. Simkins & L. J. Saif. 1993. Isotype-specific antibody-secreting cells to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus in gut- and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues of suckling pigs. J. Immunol. 150: 3990-4000.

VanCott, J . L., T. Brim, J. Lunney & L. J. Saif. 1994. Contribution of antibody secreting cells induced in mucosal lymphoid tissues of pigs inoculated with respiratory or enteric strains of coronavirus to immunity against enteric coronavirus challenge. J. Immunol. 152: 3980-3990.

Van Reeth, K ., & M. Pensaert. 1994. Porcine respiratory coronavirus-medicated interference against influenza virus replication in the respiratory tract of feeder pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55: 1275-1281.

Van Reeth, K ., S. Van Gucht & M. Pensaert. 2002. In vivo studies on cytokine involvement during acute viral respiratory disease of swine: troublesome but rewarding. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 87: 161-168.


Larry Anderson, MD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
e-mail | publications

Larry Anderson is a CDC virus expert and coauthor of a paper that characterizes the SARS virus. Anderson and his colleagues tested samples from patients in six countries with SARS.

In their report, they found that "nineteen patients with SARS have been identified as infected with the new coronavirus. All have direct or indirect links to the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong and Guangdong province, China."

Scott Hammer, MD

Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center
e-mail | web site | publications

Scott Hammer is the Harold C. Neu Professor of Medicine, professor of bublic health (epidemiology), and chief of the division of infectious diseases at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center. A graduate of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Hammer completed his residency in internal medicine at the Presbyterian Hospital and Stanford University Hospital and served as chief medical resident at the Presbyterian Hospital. He completed infectious disease fellowship training at the Massachusetts General Hospital before joining the faculty of the Deaconess Hospital (now the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) and Harvard Medical School in 1982. He became director of the Research Virology Laboratory at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center before being returning to Columbia in 1999.

Much of Hammer's career has been devoted to improving the treatment of HIV infection. He in an investigator in the National Institutes of Health sponsored AIDS Clinical Trials Group, has chaired the two largest national trials of antiretroviral therapy carried out by that group in the 1990s, and is an investigator in the National Institutes of Health-sponsored HIV Vaccine Trials Network. A former chair of the Antiviral Products Advisory Committee of the Food and Drug Administration, he is also a member of the governing council of the International AIDS Society and a member of the International Advisory Committees of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the French National Association for AIDS Research.

Frederick G. Hayden, MD

University of Virginia School of Medicine
e-mail | web site | publications

Frederick G. Hayden focuses his research activities on understanding the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections and the application of antiviral agents for their prevention and treatment. The scope of his studies has ranged from in vitro assays of viral susceptibility and antiviral mechanisms of action to clinical trials involving experimentally induced and naturally occurring infections.

Current areas of investigation in his group include determining cytokine and nitric oxide elaboration during acute influenza, sequence analysis of drug-resistant rhinovirus and influenza virus variants, and development and use of PCR-based assays for detection of picornaviruses and influenza viruses. Additional areas include in vitro studies of antiviral combinations for respiratory viruses and clinical testing of several candidate antiviral agents for influenza and rhinovirus infections.

David Ho, MD

Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center
e-mail | web site | publications

David Ho is the founding scientific director and chief executive Officer of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC). He is also the Irene Diamond Professor at the Rockefeller University. A world-renowned AIDS researcher, Ho has been actively engaged in AIDS research for 20 years. He has published over 250 papers on the subject.

Ho was named Time magazine's Man of the Year in 1996 and was the recipient of a presidential medal in 2001. He has received numerous honors and awards for his scientific accomplishments, and he is an honorary professor at both Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. He currently serves on the board of overseers of Harvard University and on the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology.

Kathryn V. Holmes, PhD

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
e-mail | web site | publications

Kathryn V. Holmes is a molecular biologist for the University of Colorado (Denver) Health Sciences Center and an expert on coronaviruses. Her main interest of study has been the interactions of coronaviruses with specific receptor glycoproteins on host cell membranes. She has characterized and cloned receptors for several coronaviruses, including human aminopeptidase N (hAPN), a cell-membrane metalloprotease that serves as the receptor for human coronavirus HCoV-229E, which causes 15%-20% of common colds.

In a recent New England Journal of Medicine article on SARS-associated coronaviruses, Holmes proposes that "the SARS-associated coronavirus is neither a mutant of any known coronavirus nor a recombinant of known coronaviruses. It is a previously unknown coronavirus, probably from a nonhuman host, that somehow acquired the ability to infect humans."

C. Richter King, PhD

GenVec, Inc.
e-mail | web site | publications

C. Richter King serves as vice president of research at GenVec, a biotech company in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The company recently announced an agreement with the NIH to co-develop a SARS vaccine using GenVec's proprietary adenovector technology.

Before joining GenVec in 1998, King conducted extensive research into the amplification of the erbB-2 gene, which is associated with common human cancers. Pursuing erbB-2 as a potential target for anticancer therapy, King directed a research group at the Georgetown University Medical School's Lombardi Cancer Research Center in Washington, DC, where he served as associate professor with the university's department of biochemistry.

Thomas G. Ksiazek, DVM, PhD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
e-mail | web site | publications

Thomas G. Ksiazek is the acting chief of the Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, at the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He has held this post at the Special Pathogens Branch since 1991.

Prior to joining the CDC, Ksiazek was chief of the rapid diagnosis department, Disease Assessment Division, at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Ft. Detrick. He is among the first to characterize the SARS associated coronavirus.

John La Montagne, PhD

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
e-mail | web site | publications

John La Montagne received his PhD in microbiology from Tulane University in 1971. Following postdoctoral training at the University of Pittsburgh in the laboratory of Julius Youngner, he joined the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in 1976 as the influenza program officer.

La Montagne has worked at the NIAID in various capacities since then, including first director of the AIDS program, now the Division of AIDS (1985-1987); director of the division of microbiology and infectious diseases (1987-1998); and now deputy director at NIAID. NIAID supports basic and applied research to prevent, diagnose, and treat infectious and immune-mediated illnesses, including HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, illness from potential agents of bioterrorism, tuberculosis, malaria, autoimmune disorders, asthma, allergies, and SARS.

Catherine Laughlin, PhD

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
e-mail | web site | publications

Catherine Laughlin is chief of the virology branch of NIAID's Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID). She is responsible for a broad spectrum of virologic research, including basic studies of replication and pathogenesis, as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the discovery and development of experimental therapies, vaccines, and diagnostics. Current program emphases include defense against possible agents of bioterrorism, emerging viral infections, viral mechanisms of immune evasion, and molecular structural approaches to antiviral design.

Laughlin received her PhD in microbiology from Rutgers University. As assistant professor of pathology at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, she conducted research on parvovirus replication, latency, and potential as vectors for gene therapy. She moved to NIAID in 1986 to assume management of its non-AIDS antiviral programs and in 1989 became chief of the antiviral research branch (ARB), which merged with the virology branch in 1994.

Marcelle Layton, MD

New York City Department of Health
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Marcelle Layton is the assistant commissioner for communicable diseases for the New York City Department of Health. In 1999 Layton identified the first-ever cases in New York City of the rare West Nile virus and mobilized a complex network of federal, state, and local agencies—as well as the entire citywide medical community—to control its spread. She created a much-praised and unprecedented communications system that reaches New York's vast and complex health care network to alert its members to public health threats.

Layton is a nationally recognized expert in planning the public-health response to the threat of biologic disasters. She successfully identified and controlled outbreaks of food poisoning, hepatitis A, and a rare occurrence of malaria in New York City, in addition to being a key player in the handling of the anthrax crisis.

W. Ian Lipkin, MD

Center for Immunopathogenesis and Infectious Diseases
Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University
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W. Ian Lipkin is the Jerome L. and Dawn Greene Professor of Epidemiology and director of the Jerome L. and Dawn Greene Infectious Disease Laboratory in the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University. He is also professor of neurology and pathology in Columbia's College of Physicians and Surgeons and principal investigator and scientific director of the Northeast Biodefense Center, a regional center of excellence in bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases research comprised of private and public academic and public health institutions in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Lipkin is a member of the World Health Organization Laboratory Surveillance Network and special advisor to China for research and international cooperation in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Under Lipkin's direction, the Greene Laboratory investigates the role of infectious agents and immune responses in acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, working through molecular epidemiology and studies of animal models. The Greene Laboratory also implements molecular systems for global surveillance of emerging viral diseases in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Current research in rodent models focuses on neurodevelopmental consequences of gestational and early postnatal direct and indirect (maternal) exposure to toxins (organic mercury), viruses (Bornavirus, double-stranded RNA), or bacteria (Streptococci).

Donald E. Low, MD

Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto
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Donald Low is head of microbiology at Mount Sinai Hospital and Toronto Medical Laboratories in Toronto. He is currently a professor at the University of Toronto and leads its division of microbiology in the department of laboratory medicine and pathobiology.

Low is a recognized authority on microbiology and infectious diseases, focusing his research on epidemiology and the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance to pathogens. He has been at the center of the SARS outbreak in Toronto, acting as physician, strategist, researcher, and spokesperson.

Paul S. Masters, PhD

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health
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Paul S. Masters is an investigator and molecular genetics professor at the Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health. Masters studies the molecular biology of coronaviruses. Studies headed by Masters are leading to interesting new insights into the complex mechanism of RNA replication and transcription in coronaviruses, a large family of RNA viruses responsible for a wide range of respiratory, enteric, and neurologic diseases in humans and domestic animals.

His lab developed a system for the site-specific mutagenesis of the genome of the prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). This procedure is being used to study the structural proteins of the virus. Of particular interest is determining the roles these proteins play in viral replication and assembly, and how they interact with cellular proteins and cause disease in the host.

Thomas Monath, MD

Acambis, Inc.
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Thomas Monath is the chief scientific officer at Acambis and an adjunct professor at the Harvard School of Public Health. He directs vaccine R&D on dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, Clostridium Difficile and helicobacter pylori, SARS, and smallpox vaccines for defense against bioterrorism.

Prior to this, Monath worked at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was colonel and chief of the virology division of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. He has published over 300 papers and edited five books on the epidemiology, immunology and pathogenesis of arboviruses, and on vaccine development.

Malik Peiris, PhD

University of Hong Kong
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Malik Peiris, who was credited with identifying the unique coronavirus as the cause of SARS, is a professor of microbiology at the University of Hong Kong. His research on influenza focuses on the ecology, epidemiology, evolution and pathogenesis of animal and human influenza, the disease burden of human influenza, and new diagnostic methods.

He is also studying human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7), virus-macrophage interactions and pathogenesis, and clinical virology, including diagnostic methods and clinical management. Previous areas of research have included the epidemiology and pathogenesis of arbovirus infections, the epidemiology of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and aspects of immunity in malaria.

C. J. Peters, MD

University of Texas Medical Branch
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C. J. Peters is a professor in the department of microbiology and immunology and the department of pathology at the University of Texas Medical Branch. He is former chief of special pathogens at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as former chief of the disease assessment division at USAMRID.

Working for the CDC, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Public Service, Peters traveled extensively in South America and Africa during his work on viral outbreaks. In the United States, he headed the unit that contained the ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia, and was a key member of the team that tracked down the hantavirus causing the mysterious deaths in rural New Mexico. A virus hunter for more than 30 years, Peters works to advance the basic research on these viruses and their close relatives and to develop both prototype and actual applied ways to control them.

Allan Rosenfield, MD

Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health
Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University
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Allan Rosenfield is DeLamar Professor of Public Health and Obstetrics and Gynecology and dean of the School of Public Health at Columbia University, where he was the founding director of the Center for Population and Family Health. His fields of study includes women's health, international health issues, health care reform in the United States, urban health care delivery systems, adolescent pregnancy, minority health concerns, and health care for the poor and disadvantaged.

Rosenfield serves as chair of the New York State Department of Health AIDS Advisory Council and of amFAR's Public Policy Committee. He has also served on the boards of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, as well as acting as past chair of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, the Alan Guttmacher Institute, the American Public Health Association's Executive Committee, and the New York Obstetrical Society. He has been medical advisor for family planning and maternal and child health to the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, where he was also a former representative of the Population Council.

Linda Saif, PhD

Food Animal Health Research Program
Ohio State University, Wooster
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Linda Saif is a professor and researcher with Ohio State University's Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). Saif is known nationally and internationally for her work on enteric viruses, including rotaviruses, caliciviruses, and coronaviruses, which cause mortality and morbidity in both food-producing animals and humans.

During the past 30 years, Saif has identified new intestinal viruses and developed diagnostic tests and research methods for working with them in the laboratory. She also has participated in a CDC SARS Advisory Group. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Chen Zhu, ScD

Shanghai Second Medical University
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Chen Zhu is vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of the Institute of Hematology, Shanghai Second Medical University (SSMU) in China. He obtained a masters degree of medical science at SSMU in 1981 and a doctor of science degree at the Institute of Hematology, Hospital Saint-Louis, University Paris VII, in Paris.

Zhu is also a member of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO), vice director of National Life Science Center in Shanghai, and director of the Human Genome Center in Shanghai. Zhu has been chosen to lead the scientific team that is dealing with SARS in China.