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The New Federalism

The New Federalism
Reported by
Mary Crowley

Posted March 12, 2010

Presented By

New York Academy of Sciences and Princeton University Policy Research Institute


In August 2001, President George W. Bush announced a ban on federal funding of all but a limited number of stem cell lines. The states, led by California, stepped into the breach and are establishing their own stem cell research programs. On April 15, 2005, this unprecedented foray by states was the topic of a daylong conference, which featured a major announcement by New Jersey Acting Governor Richard Codey about stem cell research in his state.

The conference was organized around four major presentations, three of which were followed by moderated panel discussions and open question and answer sessions. Paul Berg discussed the implications of states playing a role traditionally held by the federal government. He also described California’s initiative, called Proposition 71, which supports embryonic stem cell research. Roger Noll examined whether funding stem cell research is worth it to society. Laurence Baker examined the potential of state-funded stem cell research programs through an economic lens. Lori Knowles examined regulatory options states should consider in governing their stem cell programs, and ethical challenges that those programs must address.

Use the tabs above to find a meeting report and multimedia from this event.

Media available from:

Paul Berg (Stanford University)
Roger Noll (Stanford University)
Richard Codey (Acting Governor of New Jersey)
Panel Discussions 1 and 2

Web Sites

AAAS Stem Cell Research
A policy brief from the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM)
Web site for the stem-cell research agency established in early 2005 with $3 billion in funding passed by California's Proposition 71, the California Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative.

Genetics & Public Policy Center
A part of the Phoebe R. Berman Bioethics Institute at Johns Hopkins University, the Center features Cloning: A Policy Analysis, a comprehensive look at the science of cloning, including stem cell research, moral and ethical issues surrounding it, and state, federal and international policies.

International Society for Stem Cell Research
From a society promoting the exchange of information on stem cell research, this site provides a wide variety of resources, including a glossary of terms, a list of relevant meetings, and information for the general public.

NAS Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research
A 2005 proposal for unified guidelines governing research with human embryonic stem cells from the National Academy of Sciences that recommends local and national review, and precluding experiments that create chimeras.

NIH Bioethics Resources on the Web
From the National Institutes of Health, a collection of annotated Web links, providing background information and various positions on issues in bioethics.

NIH Stem Cell Information
A wide range of information on funding, research, background, and policy. The site contains the official U.S. government position on the eligibility criteria for federal funding of research on human embryonic stem cells and links to laboratories that have met those criteria. From the Stem Cell Registry, researchers can obtain human embryonic stem cells for federally funded research.

President Bush's Address to the Nation on Stem Cell Research
The August 9, 2001, speech by President Bush that banned federal funding for stem cell research beyond existing lines.

President’s Council on Bioethics
A commission to advise the President of the United States on ethical issues related to advances in biomedical science and technology, including stem cells.

Princeton Stem Cell Database
A free, interactive resource for the scientific community providing a catalogue of the stem cell or microenvironmental molecular "parts lists" of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) system in mice and humans.

The Stem Cell Institute of New Jersey
Web site for the nation's first state-supported institute dedicated to stem cell research and medical treatment.


Holland, S., K. Lebacqz & L. Zoloth, Eds. 2001. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA

Johnson, J. & E. Williams. 2004. Stem Cell Research: CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. The Library of Congress.

National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological and Biomedical Applications of Stem Cell Research, Board on Life Sciences Natural Research Council, and Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health Institute of Medicine. 2002. Stem Cells and The Future of Regenerative Medicine. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

The President's Council on Bioethics. 2005. White Paper: Alternative Sources of Pluripotent Stem Cells. Washington, D.C. FULL TEXT

The President's Council on Bioethics. 2003. Being Human: Readings from the President's Council on Bioethics. Washington, D.C. FULL TEXT

Ruse, M. & C. A. Pynes, Eds. 2003. The Stem Cell Controversy: Debating the Issues. Prometheus, New York.

Silver, L. M. 1997. Remaking Eden: How Genetic Engineering and Cloning Will Transform the American Family. Avon, New York.

Snow, N., Ed.. 2004. Stem Cell Research: New Frontiers in Science and Ethics. University of Notre Dame Press, South Bend, IN.

Journal Articles

Andrews, L. & N. Elster. 1998. Embryo research in the US. Hum Reprod 13: 1-4. (PDF, 77 KB) FULL TEXT

Brock, D. W. 2002. Human cloning and our sense of self. Science 296: 314-316.

Downing, G. J. & J. F. Battey, Jr. 2004. Technical assessment of the first 20 years of research using mouse embryonic stem cell lines. Stem Cells 22: 1168-80.

Faden, R., L. Dawson, A. S. Bateman-House et. al. 2003. Public stem cell banks: considerations of justice in stem cell research and therapy. Hastings Center Report 33 (6): 13-27.

Hollmer, M. 2005. Funding a taxing issue for embryonic stem cell research. Boston Business Journal (March 11). FULL TEXT

Javitt, J. C. & Y.-P. Chiang. 1995. Economic impact of diabetes. In: Diabetes in America, 2nd Edition. M. I. Harris, C. C. Cowie, M. P. Stern et al, Eds. National Diabetes Data Group of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. NIH Publication No. 95-1468: 601-612. (PDF, 72 KB) FULL TEXT

Katayama, A. 2001. Human reproductive cloning and related techniques: an overview of the legal environment and practitioner attitudes. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 18: 442-450.

Knowles, L. P. 2004. A regulatory patchwork—human ES cell research oversight. Nat. Biotechnol. 22: 157-163.

Knowles, L. P. 2005. Stem cell research: how do we draw the lines? New Eng. School Law J.

Levine, A. D. 2005 Trends in the geographic distribution of human embryonic stem-cell research. Polit. Life Sci. 23: 40-45. (PDF, 131 KB) FULL TEXT

Reading Room

Some Economic Implications of State Stem Cell Funding Programs

State-sponsored Human Stem Cells Research: Regulatory Approaches and Standard Setting

The Rise of State-sponsored Stem Cell Research in the United States
Aaron Levine
(PDF, 16 pages, 236.45 KB)

The Politics and Economics of Implementing State-Sponsored Embryonic Stem Cell Research



Anthony Shorris

Policy Research Institute for the Region
email | web site

Anthony Shorris is lecturer of public and international affairs and director of the Policy Research Institute for the Region. He was formerly New York City's Commissioner of Finance and its Deputy Budget Director, and was the first deputy executive director of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey


Laurence C. Baker, PhD

Stanford University
email | web site

Laurence Baker is associate professor of health research and policy and chief of health services research at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Fellow of the Center for Health Policy at Stanford University. He holds a courtesy appointment in the Stanford University department of economics. He is also research associate in the health care, productivity, and children's programs of the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, MA. He was awarded the Alice S. Hersh Young Investigator Award by the Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy in 2000, and in 1997 and 1999 he received the National Institute for Management's research prize for his work on managed care.

Paul Berg, PhD

Stanford University
email | web site | publications

Paul Berg is the Cahill Professor in Cancer Research Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine at Stanford University. Widely regarded as one of the principal pioneers in gene splicing, he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980 for developing methods to map the structure and function of DNA. Berg received his PhD in biochemistry from Case Western Reserve University. In addition to the Nobel, for his work on the genetic mechanisms through which cells form proteins and the development of recombinant DNA technology, he has received the Eli Lilly Award (1959), the California Scientist of the Year Award (1964), the Mattia Prize (1972), and the Gairdner Foundation Award, the New York Academy of Sciences Award, the Lasker Foundation Award, the American Association for the Advancement of Science Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award, the National Medal of Science, and the National Library of Medicine Medal.

Richard J. Codey

Acting Governor of New Jersey
email | web site

Richard Codey is the Acting Governor of New Jersey. In a career in state government that has lasted more than three decades, Codey, a former state legislator and state senator, was co-president of the Senate in 2004 and senate minority leader from 1998-2002. He had earned a reputation as a skillful leader who is able to achieve bipartisan goals. As acting governor, a post he assumed in November 2004, Codey has focused on ethics in government, creating the post of inspector general and hiring a special ethics counsel to develop a mandatory ethics training program.

Lori P. Knowles

University of Alberta

Lori Knowles is a bioethics policy consultant and research associate of the Health Law Institute, University of Alberta, Canada. A specialist in international comparative law, particularly as it relates to biotechnology regulation, she holds law degrees from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Knowles has served as a consultant to President Bush's Council on Bioethics, President Clinton's National Bioethics Advisory Commission, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the National Academy of Sciences. She is a member of the Ethics Oversight Committee for the US Department of Veterans Affairs DNA Tissue Bank, and a faculty member at the Bard College School of Environmental Policy. She lives in Boston.

Roger G. Noll, PhD

Stanford University
email | web site

Roger Noll is professor of economics at Stanford University and the director of the Stanford Center for International Development. The author of 13 books and over 300 articles, Noll's work in R&D policy includes The Technology Pork Barrel, a study of large-scale federally funded programs to develop commercial technologies, and several articles on public-private R&D cooperation.


David P. Beck, PhD

Coriell Institute for Medical Research
email | web site

David Beck is president and CEO of the Coriell Institute for Medical Research, which has a special focus on stem cell research. Beck has served at the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of General Medical Science, where he was deputy director of the genetics program and legislative liaison for the director of the Institute. He was also associate director for administration at the Public Health Research Institute in New York City. He serves on the boards of directors of the New Jersey Technology Council and the New Jersey Association for Biomedical Research.

Ira B. Black, MD, PhD

Stem Cell Institute of New Jersey
email | web site | publications

Ira Black is founding director of the Stem Cell Institute of New Jersey, and professor and chairman of the department of neuroscience and cell biology at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. He is also chairman of the publications committee of the International Society for Stem Cell Research and a member of the scientific advisory board of the Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine of New Jersey and the scientific advisory council of the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation.

Neil M. Cohen

New Jersey State Assembly
email | web site

Neil M. Cohen is a New Jersey assemblyman and the deputy majority leader. He is also chairperson of the Committee on Banking and Insurance, and a member of the Labor Committee and the Joint Legislative Commission on Ethical Standards. He was first elected to the General Assembly in 1990 and is now serving his seventh term. Cohen has received statewide recognition as the leading advocate for women's rights in the Assembly. He has received numerous awards, including the Torch of Freedom Award and the B'nai B'rith National and Civic Affair Award. He also was honored by the state business and labor community as Legislator of the Year in 1991.

Brian Flanagan, PhD

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation

Brian Flanagan is scientific program manager of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation with responsibility for the islet biology and transplantation portfolio. He is also chair of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International's Oversight Committee for Stem Cell Research.

Joseph Hammang, PhD

Pfizer Global Research and Development

Joseph Hammang is director of science policy and public affairs at Pfizer Global Research and Development. Prior to joining Pfizer, Hammang served as the Governor of Rhode Island's advisor for science and technology at the Rhode Island Economic Policy Council, and was vice president for science, technology and business development at the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation. Previously, at Bristol-Myers Squibb, he was involved in Alzheimer's disease research, and at CytoTherapeutics, Inc. he was director of cell and molecular neuroscience and the director of the ophthalmology therapeutic program.

Robert F. Johnston

Johnston Associates Inc.
email | web site

Robert Johnston is president of Johnston Associated Inc., which provides merger advisory and financing for emerging companies in technology-intensive industries. A former investment banker for F.S. Smithers & Co. and for Smith Barney & Co., he also previously founded a number of other companies focused on biotechnology and health care.

Kenneth I. Moch

email | web site

Kenneth I. Moch is president and CEO of Alteon, Inc. and chairman of the Biotechnology Council of New Jersey. He is also a member of the executive committee of the New York Biotechnology Association and a member of the governing body of the emerging companies section of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO).

David A. Paterson

New York State Senate
email | web site

David Paterson is a New York State senator and the senate minority leader. A leading legislative advocate for social and economic justice for all New Yorkers and a human rights advocate, Paterson is the highest-ranking African-American official in New York State. He has received state and national recognition for efforts to preserve the legacy of African-American culture in New York. The Senator, who is legally blind, is also a leading advocate for the rights of the visually and physically challenged, and was elected as a member of the American Foundation for the Blind. He is also a board member of the Achilles Track Club.

Sherrie Preische, PhD

New Jersey Commission on Science & Technology
email | web site

Sherrie Preische is executive director of the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology. Previously, she was science and technology policy advisor to former New Jersey Governor James McGreevey. She has conducted research in fusion energy at Princeton and in France, and worked for the American Physical Society in Washington, D.C.

Uwe Reinhardt, PhD

Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
email | web site

Uwe Reinhardt is the James Madison Professor of Political Economy at Princeton University and professor of economic and public affairs for the department of economics and Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. He has served or is currently serving as a board member on the National Advisory Council for Health Care Policy, Research, and Evaluation of the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality and the World Bank, among others.

Leon Rosenberg, MD

Princeton University
email | web site

Leon Rosenberg is professor of molecular biology and public affairs at Princeton University. He also has a faculty appointment at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. A former dean of the Yale University School of Medicine, he was professor of human genetics, pediatrics, and medicine at Yale, and chairman of Yale's department of human genetics, which he established. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Institute of Medicine. He is a past president of the American Society of Human Genetics, the Association of American Physicians, and the Funding First Initiative of the Mary Lasker Trust.

Lee M. Silver, PhD

email | web site | publications

Lee Silver is professor of molecular biology and public affairs at Princeton University and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. He also has joint appointments in the Program in Science, Technology, and Environmental Policy, the Center for Health and Wellbeing, the Office of Population Research, and the Princeton Environmental Institute. He is the author of Remaking Eden: How Genetic Engineering and Cloning Will Transform the American Family. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a recipient of a 10-year National Institutes of Health MERIT award. He was a member of the New Jersey Bioethics Commission Task Force.

Robert D. Willig, PhD

Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
email | web site

Robert Willig is professor of economics and public affairs at Princeton University. He served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the US Department of Justice and has been a member of policy task forces for the Governor of New Jersey, the Defense Science Board, and the National Research Council. He was also a supervisor in the economics research department of Bell Laboratories. A Fellow of the Econometric Society, Willig is the author of Welfare Analysis of Policies Affecting Prices and Products, among other books.

Mary Crowley
Mary Crowley produces a weekly news service for Cover the Uninsured, a national campaign sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Formerly, she was the editorial director of Praxis Press, where she co-created Praxis Post, a webzine of medicine and culture. She also developed the Praxis Press News Bureau and was founding editor of Johns Hopkins Health after 50, a widely circulated monthly consumer-health newsletter.