eBriefing

The Trans-RCE Biodefense Seminars

The Trans-RCE Biodefense Seminars
Reported by
Marilynn Larkin

Posted October 15, 2009

Overview

In recent years, diseases that many thought had been put to rest—or at least confined to discrete areas of the world—are now emerging as potential threats. That includes the growing threat of bioterrorism. In response, in 2003 the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) earmarked $350 million for five years to establish eight Regional Centers of Excellence (RCEs) for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research. Their shared mission is to provide the resources to defend against bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases—including vaccines, diagnostics, therapeutics, and trained personnel.

On December 6, 2004, the centers inaugurated the Trans-RCE Biodefense Seminars, a series of lectures using video and Web-conferencing technologies. The 2004-2005 program was seen at more than 30 institutions throughout the United States. This eBriefing contains reports and multimedia on each of the 13 lectures presented in the series. It provides an overview of bioterrorism risks, and research and clinical perspectives on several infectious diseases thought to pose particular threats.

Use the tabs above to find meeting reports and multimedia from this series.


Bioterrorism: The Reality of Risk
Gregory A. Poland (Mayo Vaccine Research Group)

Smallpox
Donald A. Henderson (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center)
R. Mark Buller (Saint Louis University School of Medicine)

Anthrax
Mary E. Wright (NIAID)
Theresa M. Koehler (University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center)

Dengue
David W. Vaughn (Military Infectious Diseases Research Program)
Alan L. Rothman (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Plague
Robert D. Perry (University of Kentucky College of Medicine)
Paul Mead (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Lassa Fever
Joseph B. McCormick (University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center)
Maria S. Salvato (University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute)

Hantaviruses
C. J. Peters (University of Texas Medical Branch)
Erich R. Mackow (Stony Brook University)


Sponsorship

Supported with a grant from the Regional Centers of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Program and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIAID Biodefense

Web Sites

NIAID Biodefense Research
Biodefense at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institutes of Health. Professionals will find career information, funding opportunities, and the institute's strategic plan. The public can check the latest news and fact sheets.

NIAID Regional Centers of Excellence
Links to each of the regional centers.

Conferences and workshops

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (ICEID)
A March 2004 conference on bioterrorism and preparedness.

National Security and Research in the Life Sciences
A conference held January 9, 2003, under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences.

Preparing for Bioterrorist Attacks
From Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, video clips of talks held April 2, 2002, on national and local efforts to prepare for bioterrorist attacks.

Preparing Experts to Combat Bioterrorism
Subtitled "Bridging the Science-Policy Gap," a conference held at Stony Brook University on November 6, 2003.

U.S. government

ATSDR Geographic Information Systems
From the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, resources for the use of geographic information systems in public health applications. The site offers free data, sources for nonprofit and commercial data, and other information-gathering tools.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Bioterrorism
The latest information on biological agents of concern and resources to counter bioterrorist attacks.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
The U.S. government's principal site on homeland security issues.

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
The primary research and development organization for the U.S. Department of Defense.

Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)
A detailed overview of the DTRA's multifaceted approach to ensuring that the United States is "ready and able" to address present and future WMD threats. The site describes how the agency performs its threat-reduction functions.

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA): Bioterrorism
The U.S. agency whose mission is to improve health-care access. It also provides funds for bioterrorism training and development.

Federal Bureau of Investigation
A key agency charged with protecting the United States from bioterrorism and other threats.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Bioterrorism
A clearinghouse for information on biological agents and public health preparedness in the face of bioterrorism.

Health Agency Locator
Immediate, searchable access to contact information for state public health agencies, officials, and hotlines.

Institutional Biosafety Committees
At the NIH's Office of Biotechnology Activities, the boards responsible for overview of recombinant DNA research.

NIAID Biodefense Research
Biodefense-related information for biomedical researchers, the public, and the media, with a focus on work underway at the U.S. National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

National Library of Medicine (NLM): Biological Warfare
A compendium of biological agents information from the U.S. government and other sources. Features include links to other relevant sites, journal abstracts and articles, books, and other resources.

Office of Science and Technology Policy
The executive office with a broad mandate to advise the president and others on the effects of science and technology on domestic and international affairs.

Ready.gov
The U.S. government's advice to the public on preparing for biological, chemical, and nuclear threats, as well as other emergencies.

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
An agency that handles medical aspects of biological warfare defense, including conducting research to develop vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics for laboratory and field use.

U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC)
Medical "solutions," often using advanced technologies, in support of the U.S. military itself. The agency's research also has implications for the general public.

U.S. Postal Inspection Service
Insights into how the service deals with "prohibited mail and other crimes," including anthrax mailings.

White House: Homeland Security
Similar information to that provided by the DHS site, with easy access to related news from the administration.

Further information

Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL)
An association dedicated to improving public health by "strengthening public health laboratories" worldwide through training, publications, and technical support. The site includes sections on emergency preparedness and infectious diseases.

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO)
A national nonprofit organization made up of the chief public health officials in the United States and its territories. The site features, among others, sections on preparedness, public health informatics, and infectious diseases.

Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO)
An industry advocacy group. This section of its site focuses on biodefense issues.

Center for Biosecurity, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)
The new home of the Center for Biosecurity, a nongovernmental Web site for information on bioterrorism planning and response.

Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP)
At the University of Minnesota, a center for interdisciplinary research that focuses on public health preparedness, food biosecurity, food safety, infectious disease information systems, and vaccine and antimicrobial safeguards.

Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM)
A research center based at the Maryland School of Public Affairs, it "seeks to enliven and broaden the campus debate on international issues by involving faculty, students, and visiting scholars from a wide range of disciplines, and by sponsoring lectures and the CISSM Forum." Its site includes overviews of current projects and publications.

Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Chinese Academy of Science's Bureau of International Cooperation.

Committee on International Security and Arms Control
Scientists and policy experts from the National Academy of Sciences. The committee's site provides an overview of its policy studies and links to reports.

Infectious Diseases Society of America
Recently updated, the society's bioterrorism section, which features detailed disease summaries and links to other relevant Web sites.

The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR)
A not-for-profit research institute focusing on structural, functional, and comparative analysis of genomes and gene products from a wide variety of organisms, including viruses, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. Institute researchers have completed the genome sequences of many pathogens, including those that cause cholera, tuberculosis, meningitis, syphilis, and Lyme disease. The site provides details on this research, as well as free software.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
At Johns Hopkins, the former home of the Center for Biosecurity, continuing research and additional resources.

National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO)
The NACCHO section on emergency preparedness, with summaries of the organization's bioterrorism projects, policy statements, and related links.

National Association of Local Boards of Health (NALBH)
Perspectives on emergency preparedness at the local level, including details of some emergency plans currently in place.

National Center for Biodefense (NCB)
Based at George Mason University, an applied research center. It also provides education and consulting in the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by biological weapons. The site gives a brief summary of the center's activities.

National Defense University (NDU)
Military education at Fort McNair in Washington, DC. The site covers all aspects of the university and its programs.

Southern Research Institute
Affiliated with the University of Alabama at Birmingham, an institute positioned as "a diversified network of collaborative centers for scientific discovery and technology development." This site offers access to sections on, among other issues, chemical and biological defense, homeland security, and infectious disease research.

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)
From the university's Biodefense Center, a comprehensive bioterrorism program, detailed perspectives on emergency response, basic science research, clinical preparedness, public health infrastructure, and training and education.

World Health Organization: Diseases
Information on all diseases covered by the initiative's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response division.


Books

Henderson, Donald A., Thomas V. Inglesby & Tara O'Toole. Bioterrorism: Guidelines for Medical and Public Health Management. American Medical Association, Chicago.

Poland, Gregory A. 1999. Vaccines in the Military. Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, Washington, DC.

Poland, Gregory A., William Schaffner & Gina Pugliese. 2000. Immunizing Health Care Workers: A Practical Approach. Slack, Inc., Thorofare, NJ.

Vaughn, D. W. and S. Green. 2000. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. In G. T. Strickland, Ed. Hunter's Textbook of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.


Journal Articles

Emerging Infectious Diseases, a journal of the Centers for Disease Control, has many full-text articles available online.

Introduction

Jacobson, R. M., K. S. Zabel & G. A. Poland. 2002. The challenge of vaccine safety. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 13: 215-220.

Poland, G. A., & E. K. Marcuse.2004. Vaccine availability in the US: problems and solutions. Nat. Immunol. 5: 1195-1198.

Poland, G. A., & J. M. Neff. 2003. Smallpox vaccine: problems and prospects. Immunol. Allergy Clin. North Am. 23: 731-743.

Varkey, P., G. A. Poland, F. R. Cockerill 3rd et al. 2002. Confronting bioterrorism: physicians on the front line. Mayo Clin. Proc. 77: 661-672.

Smallpox: a clinical perspective

Atlas, R. M. 1998. The threat of bioterrorism returns the fear of smallpox. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1: 719-721.

Bozzette, S. A., R. Boer, V. Bhatnagar et al. 2003. A model for a smallpox-vaccination policy. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 416-425.

Breman, J. G., & D. A. Henderson. 2002. Diagnosis and management of smallpox. N. Engl. J. Med. 346: 1300-1308.

Fulginiti, V. A., A. Papier, J. M. Lane et al. 2003. Smallpox vaccination, a review, part II: Adverse events. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 251-271.

Fulginiti, V. A., A. Papier, J. M. Lane et al. 2003. Smallpox vaccination, a review, part I: background, vaccination technique, normal vaccination and revaccination, and expected normal reactions. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 241-250.

Henderson, D. A. 2003. D. A. Henderson: acting globally, thinking locally. Mol. Interv. 3: 242-247. Full Text

Henderson, D. A. 2002. Countering the posteradication threat of smallpox and polio. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 79-83.

Henderson, D. A. 2001. The science of bioterrorism: HHS preparedness. Office of Public Health Preparedness, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Dec 5). Full Text

Henderson, D. A. 1998. Bioterrorism as a public health threat. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 488-492. Full Text

Mayr, A. 2003. Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26: 423-430.

Neff, J. M., J. M. Lane, V. A. Fulginiti & D. A. Henderson. 2002. Contact vaccinia: transmission of vaccinia from smallpox vaccination. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 288: 1901-1905.

Slifka, M. K., & J. M. Hanifin. 2004. Smallpox: the basics. Dermatol. Clin. 22: 263-274.

Whitley, R. J. 2003. Smallpox: a potential agent of bioterrorism. Antiviral Res. 57: 7-12.

Smallpox: a research perspective

Essajee, S., & H. L. Kaufman. 2004. Poxvirus vaccines for cancer and HIV therapy. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 4: 575-588.

Lefkowitz, E. J., C. Upton, S. S. Changayil et al. 2005. Poxvirus Bioinformatics Resource Center: a comprehensive Poxviridae informational and analytical resource. Nucleic Acids Res. 33: 311-316.

Schriewer, J., R. M. Buller & G. Owens. 2004. Mouse models for studying orthopoxvirus respiratory infections. Methods Mol. Biol. 269: 289-308.

Vogel, G. 2004. Infectious diseases: WHO gives a cautious green light to smallpox experiments. Science 306: 1270-1271.

Wollenberg, A., & R. Engler. 2004. Smallpox, vaccination and adverse reactions to smallpox vaccine. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 4: 271-275.

Anthrax: a clinical perspective

Bales, M. E., A. L. Dannenberg, P. S. Brachman et al. 2002. Epidemiologic response to anthrax outbreaks: field investigations, 1950-2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 8: 1163-1174.

Demirdag, K., M. Ozden, Y. Saral et al. 2003. Cutaneous anthrax in adults: a review of 25 cases in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Infection. 315: 327-330.

Gaur, R, P. K. Gupta, A. C. Banerjea & Y. Singh. 2002. Effect of nasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis on protective immune response against anthrax toxin. Vaccine. 20:2836-2839.

Hoffman, K., C. Costello, M. Menich et al. 2003. Using a structured medical note for determining the safety profile of anthrax vaccine for US soldiers in Korea. Vaccine. 21: 4399-4409.

Kuehnert, M. J., T. J. Doyle, H. A. Hill et al. 2003. Clinical features that discriminate inhalational anthrax from other acute respiratory illnesses. Clin Infect Dis. 36: 328-336.

Kyriacou, D. N., A. C. Stein, P. R. Yarnold et al. 2004. Clinical predictors of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax. Lancet. 364:449-452.

Morens, D. M. 2002. Epidemic anthrax in the eighteenth century, the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 8: 1160-1162.

Quinn, C. P., P. H. Dull, V. Semenova et al. 2004. Immune responses to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in patients with bioterrorism-related cutaneous or inhalation anthrax. J Infect Dis. 190: 1228-1236.

Reissman, D. B., E. A. Whitney, T. H. Taylor, Jr. et al. 2004. One-year health assessment of adult survivors of Bacillus anthracis infection. JAMA. 291: 1994-1998.

Shafazand, S. 2003. When bioterrorism strikes: diagnosis and management of inhalational anthrax. Semin. Respir. Infect. 18: 134-145.

Shieh, W. J., J. Guarner, C. Paddock et al. 2003. The critical role of pathology in the investingation of bioterrorism-related cutaneous anthrax. Am. J. Pathol. 163: 1901-1910. Full Text

Anthrax: a research perspective

Agrawal, A. & B. Pulendran. 2004. Anthrax lethal toxin: a weapon of multisystem destruction. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61: 2859-2865.

Bourgogne, A., M. Drysdale, S. G. Hilsenbeck et al. 2003. Global effects of virulence gene regulators in a Bacillus anthracis strain with both virulence plasmids. Infect Immun. 71: 2736-2743. Full Text

Chabot, D. J., A. Scorpio, S. A. Tobery et al. 2004. Anthrax capsule vaccine protects against experimental infection. Vaccine. 23: 43-47.

Collier, R. J. & J. A. Young. 2003. Anthrax toxin. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 19: 45-70.

Drysdale, M., A. Bourgogne, S. G. Hilsenbeck & T. M. Koehler. 2004. atxA controls Bacillus anthracis capsule synthesis via acpA and a newly discovered regulator, acpB. J. Bacteriol. 186: 307-315. Full Text

Drysdale, M., S. Heninger, J. Hutt et al. 2005. Capsule synthesis by Bacillus anthracis is required for dissemination in murine inhalation anthrax. EMBO J. 24: 221-227.

Koehler, T. M. 2002. Bacillus anthracis genetics and virulence gene regulation. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 271: 143-164.

Kozel, T. R., W. J. Murphy, S. Brandt et al. 2004. mAbs to Bacillus anthracis capsular antigen for immunoprotection in anthrax and detection of antigenemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101: 5042-5047. Full Text

Lyons, C. R., J. Lovchik, J. Hutt et al. 2004. Murine model of pulmonary anthrax: kinetics of dissemination, histopathology, and mouse strain susceptibility. Infect. Immun. 72: 4801-4809. Full Text

Moayeri, M. & S. H. Leppla. 2004. The roles of anthrax toxin in pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 7: 19-24.

Tinsley, E., A. Naqvi, A. Bourgogne et al. 2004. Isolation of a minireplicon of the virulence plasmid pXO2 of Bacillus anthracis and characterization of the plasmid-encoded RepS replication protein. J. Bacteriol. 186: 2717-2723. Full Text

Dengue: a clinical perspective

Blaney, J. E., Jr, C. T. Hanson, C. Y. Firestone et al. 2004. Genetically modified, live attenuated dengue virus type 3 vaccine candidates. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71: 811-821.

Cologna, R., P. M. Armstrong & R. Rico-Hesse. 2005. Selection for virulent dengue viruses occurs in humans and mosquitoes.. J. Virol. 79: 853-859.

Damonte, E. B., C. A. Pujol & C. E. Coto. 2004. Prospects for the therapy and prevention of dengue virus infections. Adv. Virus Res. 63: 239-285.

Edelman, R., S. S. Wasserman, S. A. Bodison et al. 2004. Phase I trial of 16 formulations of a tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccine. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69(6 Suppl.): 48-60. Erratum in: Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70: 336.

Endy, T. P., A. Nisalak, S. Chunsuttitwat et al. 2004. Relationship of preexisting dengue virus (DV) neutralizing antibody levels to viremia and severity of disease in a prospective cohort study of DV infection in Thailand. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 990-1000.

Guzman, M., G. Kouri & M. Diaz. 2004. Dengue, one of the great emerging health challenges of the 21st century. Expert Rev. Vaccines. 189: 990-1000.

Mackenzie, J. S., D. J. Gubler & L. R. Petersen. 2004. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses. Nat. Med. 10 (12 Suppl): S98-109.

Thomas, S. J., D. Strickman & D. W. Vaughn. 2003. Dengue epidemiology: virus epidemiology, ecology, and emergence. Adv. Virus Res. 61: 235-289.

Dengue: a research perspective

Gubler, D. J. 1998. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 480-496. Full Text

Jessie, K., M. Y. Fong, S. Devi et al. Localization of dengue virus in naturally infected human tissues, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 1411-1418.

Libraty D. H., T. P. Endy, H. S. Houng et al. 2002. Differing influences of virus burden and immune activation on disease severity in secondary dengue-3 virus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 185: 1213-1221.

Mangada, M. M., T. P. Endy, A. Nisalak et al. 2002. Dengue-specific T cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained prior to secondary dengue virus infections in Thai schoolchildren. J. Infect. Dis. 185: 1697-1703.

Modis, Y., S. Ogata, D. Clements & S. C. Harrison. 2004. Structure of the dengue virus envelope protein after membrane fusion. Nature 427: 313-319.

Munoz-Jordan, J. L., G. G. Sanchez-Burgos, M. Laurent-Rolle & A. Garcia-Sastre. 2003. Inhibition of interferon signaling by dengue virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100: 14333-14338. Full Text

Rothman, A. L. 2004. Dengue: defining protective versus pathologic immunity. J. Clin. Invest. 113: 946-951. Full Text

Rothman, A. L. 2003. Immunology and immunopathogenesis of dengue disease. Adv. Virus Res. 60: 397-419.

Tassaneetrithep, B., T. H. Burgess, A. Granelli-Piperno et al. 2003. DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 197: 823-829. Full Text

Zivny J, Kurane I, Ennis FA. 1995. Establishment of dengue virus-specific human CD4+ T lymphocyte clones from Percoll-purified T lymphoblasts by stimulation with monoclonal antibody to CD3. J. Immunol. Methods. 188: 165-167.

Dengue: a clinical perspective

Blaney, J. E., Jr, C. T. Hanson, C. Y. Firestone et al. 2004. Genetically modified, live attenuated dengue virus type 3 vaccine candidates. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71: 811-821.

Cologna, R., P. M. Armstrong & R. Rico-Hesse. 2005. Selection for virulent dengue viruses occurs in humans and mosquitoes.. J. Virol. 79: 853-859.

Damonte, E. B., C. A. Pujol & C. E. Coto. 2004. Prospects for the therapy and prevention of dengue virus infections. Adv. Virus Res. 63: 239-285.

Edelman, R., S. S. Wasserman, S. A. Bodison et al. 2004. Phase I trial of 16 formulations of a tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccine. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69(6 Suppl.): 48-60. Erratum in: Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70: 336.

Endy, T. P., A. Nisalak, S. Chunsuttitwat et al. 2004. Relationship of preexisting dengue virus (DV) neutralizing antibody levels to viremia and severity of disease in a prospective cohort study of DV infection in Thailand. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 990-1000.

Guzman, M., G. Kouri & M. Diaz. 2004. Dengue, one of the great emerging health challenges of the 21st century. Expert Rev. Vaccines. 189: 990-1000.

Mackenzie, J. S., D. J. Gubler & L. R. Petersen. 2004. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses. Nat. Med. 10 (12 Suppl): S98-109.

Thomas, S. J., D. Strickman & D. W. Vaughn. 2003. Dengue epidemiology: virus epidemiology, ecology, and emergence. Adv. Virus Res. 61: 235-289.

Dengue: a research perspective

Gubler, D. J. 1998. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 480-496. Full Text

Jessie, K., M. Y. Fong, S. Devi et al. Localization of dengue virus in naturally infected human tissues, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 1411-1418.

Libraty D. H., T. P. Endy, H. S. Houng et al. 2002. Differing influences of virus burden and immune activation on disease severity in secondary dengue-3 virus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 185: 1213-1221.

Mangada, M. M., T. P. Endy, A. Nisalak et al. 2002. Dengue-specific T cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained prior to secondary dengue virus infections in Thai schoolchildren. J. Infect. Dis. 185: 1697-1703.

Modis, Y., S. Ogata, D. Clements & S. C. Harrison. 2004. Structure of the dengue virus envelope protein after membrane fusion. Nature 427: 313-319.

Munoz-Jordan, J. L., G. G. Sanchez-Burgos, M. Laurent-Rolle & A. Garcia-Sastre. 2003. Inhibition of interferon signaling by dengue virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100: 14333-14338. Full Text

Rothman, A. L. 2004. Dengue: defining protective versus pathologic immunity. J. Clin. Invest. 113: 946-951. Full Text

Rothman, A. L. 2003. Immunology and immunopathogenesis of dengue disease. Adv. Virus Res. 60: 397-419.

Tassaneetrithep, B., T. H. Burgess, A. Granelli-Piperno et al. 2003. DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 197: 823-829. Full Text

Zivny J, Kurane I, Ennis FA. 1995. Establishment of dengue virus-specific human CD4+ T lymphocyte clones from Percoll-purified T lymphoblasts by stimulation with monoclonal antibody to CD3. J. Immunol. Methods. 188: 165-167.

Plague: a clinical perspective

Inglesby, T. V., D. T. Dennis, D. A. Henderson et al. 2000. Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA 283: 2281-2290.

Kool, J. 2005. Risk of person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 1166-1172.

Perry, R. D., J. D. Fetherston. 1997. Yersinia pestis: the etiologic agent of plague. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 35-66. Full Text

Plague: a research perspective

Bearden, S. W. & R. D. Perry. 1999. The Yfe system of Yersinia pestis transports iron and manganese and is required for full virulence of plague. Mol. Microbiol. 32: 403-414. Full Text

Bearden, S. W., R. D. Perry & J. D. Fetherston. 1997. Genetic organization of the yersiniabactin biosynthetic region and construction of avirulent mutants in Yersinia pestis. Infect. Immun. 65: 1659-1668. Full Text

Bearden, S. W., T. M. Staggs & R. D. Perry. 1998. An ABC transporter system of Yersinia pestis allows utilization of chelated iron by Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 180: 1135-1147, Full Text

Bobrov, A. G., O. Kirillina & R. D. Perry. 2005 [in press]. The phosphodiesterase activity of the HmsP EAL domain is required for negative regulation of biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett.

Bobrov, A. G., V. A. Geoffroy & R. D. Perry. 2002. Yersiniabactin Production Requires the Thioesterase Domain of HMWP2 and YbtD, a Putative Phosphopantetheinylate Transferase. Infect. Immun. 70: 4204-4214. Full Text

Deng, W., V. Burland, G. Plunkett III et al. 2002. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis KIM. J. Bacteriol. 184: 4601-4611. Full Text

Fetherston, J. D., S. W. Bearden & R. D. Perry. 1996. YbtA, an AraC-type regulator of the Yersinia pestis receptor for yersiniabactin and pesticin. Mol. Microbiol. 22: 315-325.

Fetherston, J. D., V. J. Bertolino & R. D. Perry. 1999. YbtP and YbtQ: two ABC transporter proteins required for iron uptake in Yersinia pestis. Mol. Microbiol. 32: 289-299. Full Text

Gehring, A. M., E. DeMoll, J. D. Fetherston et al. 1998. Iron acquisition in plague: modular logic in enzymatic biogenesis of yersiniabactin by Yersinia pestis. Chem. Biol. 5: 573-586.

Geoffroy V. A., J. D. Fetherston & R. D. Perry. 2000. Yersinia pestis YbtU and YbtT are involved in synthesis of the siderophore yersiniabactin but have different effects on regulation. Infect. Immun. 68: 4452-4461. Full Text

Gong, S., S. W. Bearden, V. A. Geoffroy et al. 2001. Characterization of the Yersinia pestis Yfu ABC Inorganic Iron Transport System. Infect. Immun. 69: 2829-2837. Full Text

Hinnebusch, B. J., R. D. Perry & T. G. Schwan. 1996. Role of the Yersinia pestis hemin storage (hms) locus in the transmission of plague by fleas. Science 273: 367-370.

Jones, H. A., J. W. Lillard, Jr. & R. D. Perry. 1999. HmsT, a protein essential for expression of the haemin storage (Hms+) phenotype of Yersinia pestis. Microbiology 145: 2117-2128. Full Text

Kirillina, O., A. G. Bobrov, J. D. Fetherston & R. D. Perry. 2004. HmsP, a putative phosphodiesterase involved in controlling expression of the Hms extracellular matrix of Yersinia pestis. Mol. Microbiol. 54: 75-88.

Kirillina, O., J. D. Fetherston, A. G. Bobrov et al. 2004. HmsP, a putative phosphodiesterase, and HmsT, a putative diguanylate cyclase, control Hms-dependent biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis. Mol. Microbiol. 54: 75-88.

Lillard, J. W., Jr., J. D. Fetherston, L. Pedersen et al. 1997. Sequence and genetic analysis of the hemin storage (hms) locus of Yersinia pestis. Gene 193: 13-21.

Lillard, J. W., Jr. & R. D. Perry. 1999. The haemin storage (Hms+) phenotype of Yersinia pestis is not essential for the pathogenesis of bubonic plague in mammals. Microbiology 145: 197-209. Full Text

Perry, R. D., A. G. Bobrov, O. Kirillina et al. 2004. Temperature regulation of the Hemin storage (Hms+) phenotype of Yersinia pestis is posttranscriptional. J. Bacteriol. 186: 1638-1647. Full Text

Perry, R. D., J. Shah, S. W. Bearden et al. 2003. Yersinia pestis TonB: role in iron, heme and hemoprotein utilization. Infect. Immun. 71: 4159-4162. Full Text

Rossi, M. S., J. D. Fetherston, S. Létoffé et al. 2001. Identification and characterization of the hemophore-dependent heme acquisition system of Yersinia pestis. Infect. Immun. 69: 6707-6717. Full Text

Thompson, J. M., H. A. Jones & R. D. Perry. 1999. Molecular characterization of the hemin uptake locus (hmu) from Yersinia pestis and analysis of hmu mutants for hemin and hemoprotein utilization. Infect. Immun. 67: 3879-3892. Full Text

Lassa Fever: a clinical perspective

Andrei, G. & E. De Clercq. 1993. Molecular approaches for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever virus infections. Antiviral Res. 22: 45-75.

Bausch, D. G., A. H. Demby, M. Coulibaly et al. 2001. Lassa fever in Guinea: I. Epidemiology of human disease and clinical observations. Vector Borne Zoonot. 1: 269-281.

Cummins, D., D. Bennett, S. P. Fisher-Hoch et al. 1992. Lassa fever encephalopathy: clinical and laboratory findings. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95: 197-201.

Demby, A. H., A. Inapogui, K. Kargbo et al. 2001. Lassa fever in Guinea: II. Distribution and prevalence of Lassa virus infection in small mammals. Vector Borne Zoonot. 1: 283-297.

Fisher-Hoch, S. P. & J. B. McCormick. 2004. Lassa fever vaccine. Expert Rev. Vaccines. 3: 189-197.

Fisher-Hoch, S. P. & J. B. McCormick. 2001. Towards a human Lassa fever vaccine. Rev. Med. Virol 11: 331-341.

Fisher-Hoch, S. P., L. Hutwagner, B. Brown & J. B. McCormick. 2000. Effective vaccine for lassa fever. J. Virol. 74: 6777-6783. Full Text

Fisher-Hoch, S. P., O. Tomori, A. Nasidi A et al. 1995. Review of cases of nosocomial Lassa fever in Nigeria: the high price of poor medical practice. BMJ. 311(7009): 857-859. Full Text

Fisher-Hoch, S. P., S. Gborie, L. Parker & J. Huggins. 1992. Unexpected adverse reactions during a clinical trial in rural west Africa. Antiviral Res. 19: 139-147.

Gunther, S & O. Lenz. 2004. Lassa virus. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab Sci. 41: 339-390.

Haas, W. H., T. Breuer, G. Pfaff et al. 2003. Imported Lassa fever in Germany: surveillance and management of contact persons. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36: 1254-1258.

McCormick, J. B. & S. P. Fisher-Hoch. 2002. Lassa fever. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 262: 75-109.

McCormick, J. B., S. W. Mitchell, M. P. Kiley et al. 1992. Inactivated Lassa virus elicits a non protective immune response in rhesus monkeys. J. Med. Virol. 37: 1-7.

Patterson, J. L. & R. Fernandez-Larsson. 1990. Molecular mechanisms of action of ribavirin. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12: 1139-1146.

Swaan, C. M., P. J. van den Broek, E. Kampert et al. 2003. Management of a patient with Lassa fever to prevent transmission. J. Hosp. Infect. 55: 234-235.

Lassa Fever: a research perspective

Borden, K. L. B., E. J. Campbell Dwyer & M. S. Salvato. 1998. An arenavirus RING (Zinc-Binding) protein binds the oncoprotein promyelocyte leukemia protein (PML) and relocates PML nuclear bodies to the cytoplasm. J. Virol. 72: 758-766. Full Text

Clegg, J. C. & G. Lloyd. 1987. Vaccinia recombinant expressing Lassa-virus internal nucleocapsid protein protects guineapigs against Lassa fever. Lancet. 2(8552): 186-188.

Djavani, M., C. Yin, I. S. Lukashevich et al. 2001. Mucosal immunization with Salmonella typhimurium expressing Lassa virus nucleocapsid protein cross-protects mice from lethal challenge with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J. Hum. Virol. 4(2): 103-108.

Djavani, M., C. Yin, L. Xia et al. 2000. Murine immune responses to mucosally delivered Salmonella expressing Lassa fever virus nucleoprotein. Vaccine. 18: 1543-1554.

Kiley, M. P., J. V. Lange & K. M. Johnson. 1979. Protection of rhesus monkeys from Lassa virus by immunisation with closely related arenavirus. Lancet. 2(8145): 738.

Lukashevich, I. S., J. D. Rodas, I. I. Tikhonov et al. 2004. LCMV-mediated hepatitis in rhesus macaques: WE but not ARM strain activates hepatocytes and induces liver regeneration. Arch. Virol. 149: 2319-2336.

Mahanty, S., K. Hutchinson, S. Agarwal et al. 2003. Cutting edge: impairment of dendritic cells and adaptive immunity by Ebola and Lassa viruses. J. Immunol. 170: 2797-2801. Full Text

McCormick, J. B., S. W. Mitchell, M. P. Kiley et al. 1992. Inactivated Lassa virus elicits a non protective immune response in rhesus monkeys. J. Med. Virol. 37(1): 1-7.

Pannetier, D., C. Faure, M.-C. Georges-Courbot et al. 2004. Human macrophages, but not dendritic cells, are activated and produce alpha/beta interferons in response to mopeia virus infection. J. Virol. 78: 10516-10524.

Rodas, J. D., I. S. Lukashevich, J. C. Zapata et al. 2004. Mucosal arenavirus infection of primates can protect them from lethal hemorrhagic fever. J. Med. Virol. 72: 424-435.

Hantaviruses: a clinical perspective

Bayard, V., P. T. Kitsutani, E. O. Barria et al. 2004. Outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Los Santos, Panama, 1999-2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1635-1642.

Chapman, L. E., B. A. Ellis, F. T. Koster et al. 2002. Discriminators between hantavirus-infected and -uninfected persons enrolled in a trial of intravenous ribavirin for presumptive hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 293-304.

Ferres, M. & P. Vial. 2004. Hantavirus infection in children. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 16: 70-75.

Katz, G., R. J. Williams, M. S. Burt et al. 2001. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1993-1998. Vector-Borne Zoonot. 1(3): 181-190.

Maes, P., J. Clement, I. Gavrilovskaya & M. Van Ranst. 2004. Hantaviruses: immunology, treatment, and prevention. Viral Immunol. 17: 481-497.

Mertz, G. J., L. Miedzinski, D. Goade et al. 2004. Placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of intravenous ribavirin for the treatment of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in North America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 1307-1313.

Peters, C. J. & A. S. Khan. 2002. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the new American hemorrhagic fever. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 1224-1231.

Pini, N. 2004. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Latin America. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 17: 427-431.

Young, J. C., G. R. Hansen, T. K. Graves et al. 2000. The incubation period of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 62: 714-717. Full Text

Zeier, M., M. Handermann, U. Bahr et al. 2005. New ecological aspects of hantavirus infection: a change of a paradigm and a challenge of prevention-a review. Virus Genes. 30: 157-180.

Hantaviruses: a research perspective

Gavrilovskaya, I. N., T. Peresleni, E. Geimonen & E. R. Mackow. 2002. Pathogenic hantaviruses selectively inhibit beta3 integrin directed endothelial cell migration. Arch. Virol. 147: 1913-1931.

Geimonen, E., S. Neff, T. Raymond et al. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses differentially regulate endothelial cell responses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 13837-13842. Full Text

Golantsova, N. E., E. E. Gorbunova & E. R. Mackow. 2004. Discrete domains within the rotavirus VP5* direct peripheral membrane association and membrane permeability. J. Virol. 78: 2037-2044. Full Text

Graham, K. L., P. Halasz, Y. Tan et al. 2003. Integrin-using rotaviruses bind alpha2beta1 integrin alpha2 I domain via VP4 DGE sequence and recognize alphaXbeta2 and alphaVbeta3 by using VP7 during cell entry. J. Virol. 77: 9969-9978. Full Text

Hjelle, B. 2002. Vaccines against hantaviruses. Expert Rev. Vaccines. 1: 373-384.

Khan, A. S. & J. C. Young. 2001. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: at the crossroads. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 14: 205-209.

Kruger, D. H., R. Ulrich & A. A. Lundkvist. 2001. Hantavirus infections and their prevention. Microbes Infect. 3: 1129-1144.

Mackow, E. R. & I. N. Gavrilovskaya. 2001. Cellular receptors and hantavirus pathogenesis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 256: 91-115.

Maes, P., J. Clement, I. Gavrilovskaya & M. Van Ranst. 2004. Hantaviruses: immunology, treatment, and prevention. Viral Immunol. 17: 481-497.

Raymond, T., E. Gorbunova, I. N. Gavrilovskaya & E. R. Mackow. 2005. Pathogenic hantaviruses bind plexin-semaphorin-integrin domains present at the apex of inactive, bent alphavbeta3 integrin conformers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 1163-1168.

Rollo, E. E., K. P. Kumar, N. C. Reich et al. 1999. The epithelial cell response to rotavirus infection. J. Immunol. 163: 4442-4452. Full Text

Speakers

R. Mark Buller, PhD

Saint Louis University School of Medicine
email | web site | publications

R. Mark Buller is professor in the department of molecular microbiology and immunology at the St. Louis University School of Medicine. His current research focuses on viral pathogenesis, the interplay between the genetic expression of an infecting virus and the host’s response to the infection. Buller applies this work toward the development of anti-virals and vaccines for poxviruses, such as smallpox. His research is driven by recent concern over a potential reintroduction of smallpox, or similar poxvirus, into the world population as an act of bioterrorism or biowarfare. Buller serves as chairperson of the poxvirus study group for the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, and as a special reviewer for the smallpox research program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Between 1982 and 1994, he held positions at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, first as a visiting scientist at the Laboratory of Viral Diseases, and later as head of the Poxvirus Pathogenesis Group.

Buller earned his PhD in 1975 from the Institute of Virology in Glasgow, Scotland. He sits on a number of editorial review boards, and in 2002, was a member of the NIAID Blue-Ribbon Panel on Bioterrorism and its Implications on Biomedical Research.

Donald A. Henderson, MD, MPH

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
email | web site | publications

Donald Henderson is professor of medicine and public health at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and Distinguished Service Professor in the departments of epidemiology and international health at Johns Hopkins University. He also is founding director of the Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, established in 1998 to increase awareness of the medical and public health threats posed by biological weapons. Henderson’s involvement in public health extends to a national and international level, where he holds a number of administrative positions. He was director of the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Public Health Preparedness from 2001-2003, and currently is resident scholar in Baltimore at the Center for Biosecurity of The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. From 1966-1977, he directed the World Health Organization’s global smallpox eradication campaign, which was largely responsible for eradicating smallpox as a naturally-occurring disease.

Henderson received his MD from the University of Rochester in 1954, and his Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University’s School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1960. He has received a number of awards and honors, including the National Medal of Sciences, the National Academy of Science’s Public Welfare Medal, and the Japan Prize, which he shared with two colleagues. Henderson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2002 for his contribution to national and international public health.

Theresa M. Koehler, PhD

University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center
email | web site | publications

Theresa Koehler is associate professor of microbiology and molecular genetics at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center. Her research there focuses on the genetics, physiology, and virulence of Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium which causes anthrax infection in mammals. She is especially interested in the pathogenesis of anthrax, signal transduction, and the host-parasite relationship. Dr. Koehler's work on B. anthracis has been funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases since 1992. In 2003 she became a lead investigator of a multi-institutional bioterrorism research program for anthrax treatment funded by the NIAID.

Koehler received her PhD from the University of Massachusetts in 1987 and spent the next three years in a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard Medical School. Since joining the faculty of the University of Texas in 1991, she has received multiple commendations and awards for excellence in research and graduate education. Koehler has served on a number of biodefense-related federal advisory committees and has made media appearances throughout the U.S. and Canada.

Erich R. Mackow, PhD

Stony Brook University
email | web site | publications

Erich R. Mackow, PhD, is an associate professor in the department of medicine at Stony Brook University. He received his PhD from Temple University in 1984 and went on to do a postdoctoral fellowship in C.-J. Lai's laboratory at the National Institutes of Health, studying influenza and dengue viruses. Later, he worked as a research associate in the lab of Harry B. Greenberg at Stanford University, studying Group A and B rotaviruses. From Stanford he moved to his current positions at Stony Brook and the VA Medical Center at Northport.

Joseph B. McCormick, MD

University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center
email | web site | publications

Joseph B. McCormick is regional dean and James H. Steele Professor of Epidemiology of the Brownsville Regional Campus of the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center School of Public Health. In 1977, he founded the CDC Lassa fever Research Project in Sierra Leone. There, he conducted extensive and definitive studies of the epidemiology and treatment of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, publishing a landmark publication in the New England Journal of Medicine on effective antiviral treatment for this disease.

He returned to Atlanta in 1979 and became Chief, Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral Diseases at the CDC, directing the Biosafety level 4 laboratories for 9 years. He subsequently led the original team that did the first AIDS investigation in Africa and established the Project SIDA in Kinshasa, Zaire, and later the Project Retro-Ci in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In 1993, he became Chairman, Community Health Sciences Department, at the Aga Khan University Medical School (AKU) where he established an epidemiology program resembling the CDC Field Epidemiology Training Programs, and a Masters' degree in Epidemiology. In 1997 he moved to France where he founded epidemiology programs for the Institute Pasteur and for Aventis Pasteur. He returned to the US in 2001 to start a new regional campus of the UT-Houston School of Public Health in Brownsville.

His awards include the Meritorious Service Medal, and humanitarian awards from Florida Southern College and Duke University Medical School.

Paul Mead, MD, PhD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado
email | web site | publications

Paul Mead is chief of epidemiology, microbiology, and diagnostic activity in the bacterial zoonosis branch in the division of vector-borne infectious diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Infectious Diseases in Fort Collins, CO. Mead received his medical degree from the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver and his MPH at the University of California, Berkeley. Prior to his present position, he served as chief of the outbreak response and surveillance unit in the CDC's foodborne and diarrheal diseases branch in Atlanta, GA, where he was also an Epidemic Intelligence Service Fellow.

Mead is the recipient of numerous awards, including, among others, the US Public Health Service's Crisis Response Service Award (2002); CDC's Group Award, Statistical Research and Services, CDC (2002); and CDC's James H. Nakano Citation, National Center for Infectious Diseases (2000).

Robert D. Perry, PhD

University of Kentucky College of Medicine
email | web site | publications

Robert D. Perry is a professor in the department of microbiology, immunology, and molecular genetics at the University of Kentucky. He has studied Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, for over 25 years. His primary research focuses on iron transport mechanisms and their role in virulence as well as biofilm formation and regulation. His research group collaborates with other investigators on vaccine development, proteomics, and anti-plague therapeutics. He is an investigator in the Southeastern Research Center for Excellence for Biodefense (SERCEB).

Perry received his PhD from Michigan State University. He joined the faculty at Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport in 1986 and moved to the University of Kentucky in 1991. He has served on the editorial board of Infection and Immunity, on a number of NIH review panels, and on several biodefense-related committees and panels.

C. J. Peters, MD

University of Texas Medical Branch
email | web site | publications

C. J. Peters is a professor in the department of pathology and in the department of microbiology and immunology at the University of Texas Medical Branch, and is a member of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases. He is also director for biodefense at the UTMB Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases.

After completing his medical education at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Peters served his residency in internal medicine at Southwestern Medical School. His interest in tropical medicine and virology was sparked by five years as a research associate at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease intramural laboratory in Panama. Upon returning to the United States, he completed his fellowship in immunology at the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation. From 1977 through 1992, he held several positions at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, ranging from research scientist and Medical Division chief to Disease Assessment Division chief. Subsequently, he moved to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as head of the Special Pathogens Branch.

Peters' career includes 30 years of experience in the virology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses. He has authored or coauthored more than 300 scientific publications, including more than 70 publications on Rift Valley fever virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses, not including reviews or textbook chapters. In 1997, Peters and Mark Olshaker wrote Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses around the World, a book describing emerging viruses and how they are studied.

Gregory A. Poland, MD

Mayo Clinic Director, Mayo Vaccine Research Group and the Program on Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense; and Group Leader, Region V Regional Center of Excellence
email | web site | publications

Gregory Poland is professor of medicine, infectious diseases, molecular pharmacology, and experimental therapeutics at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, where he also is the department of medicine’s associate chair for research. In his various capacities at the Mayo Clinic, Poland’s work focuses on the fields of vaccinology, clinical research, and biodefense. He is director of the Immunization Clinic, the Program in Translational Immunology and Biodefense, and the Vaccine Research Group, which uses state-of-the-art technology to investigate issues of vaccine response and novel vaccines important to public health. In addition to his work at the Mayo Clinic, Poland participates in a number of national and academic committees, organizations, and workgroups, and serves as peer reviewer for more than 26 publications. He is president of the International Society for Vaccines, and is the American editor for the journal Vaccine. Poland serves as frequent advisor to government and military officials on issues of vaccination policy and infectious disease prevention.

Poland is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service in 2003 for his participation on the Armed Services Epidemiological Board, and a joint award in 1998 from the CDC and Healthcare Financing Administration for his contribution to increasing adult immunization in the U.S. He was honored as Outstanding Clinical Investigator of the Year by the Mayo Clinic and Foundation in 1997, and was named Mary Lowell Leary Professor in Medicine in 2004. Poland has been highly visible in the national media, with appearances and interviews on a number of major television and radio networks, as well as throughout influential newspapers and magazines.

Poland received his MD from the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, and completed his residency and postgraduate work at the University of Minnesota/Abbot-Northwestern Hospital.

Alan L. Rothman, MD

Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine ResearchUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
email | web site | publications

Alan Rothman is a professor in the program in immunology and virology and in infectious diseases and medicine at the University of Massachusetts, where he is also affiliated with the Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research. He earned an MD degree at Boston University and pursued post-graduate training in internal medicine at the Medical College of Virginia and at the Boston Veterans Administration Hospital. He also received post-graduate training in infectious diseases at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Dr. Rothman is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Board of Internal Medicine (Infectious Diseases).

Maria S. Salvato, PhD

University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute
email | web site | publications

Maria S. Salvato is a professor at the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute. Her research interests include the pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fever and arenavirus vaccines; mechanisms of virus-mediated cell death in AIDS; and use of animal models and genomic/proteomic approaches to analyze virus/host interactions.

Dr. Salvato received her BA in zoology at the University of California, Los Angeles and her PhD in molecular biology at the University of California, Berkeley. She did post-doctoral work at the University of California, San Francisco, and at the Medical Research Council, Cambridge, UK. She held faculty positions at Scripps Clinic in San Diego, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison and is now at the University of Maryland, Baltimore.

David W. Vaughn, MD, MPH

Director, Military Infectious Diseases Research Program
email | web site | publications

Colonel David W. Vaughn, MD, MPH, is Director, Military Infectious Diseases Research Program (MIDRP), U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, MD. Director of MIDRP since 2002, Dr. Vaughn also chairs the Department of Defense's Joint Technology Coordination Group on Infectious Diseases of Military Importance.

A graduate of St. Louis University School of Medicine in 1983, Dr. Vaughn completed a residency in Pediatrics in 1986 and was awarded an MPH from Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1991. He was Chief, Pediatrics, U.S. Army Hospital, Nuremberg, Germany from 1986-1990; Chief, Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand from 1992-1998; Chief, Department of Virus Diseases, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Washington, D.C. from 1998-2002. He serves as adviser and consultant to the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative. Dr. Vaughn is a world authority in dengue, Japanese encephalitis and hepatitis viral diseases, and on vaccine development and testing.

Mary E. Wright, MD, MPH

Chief of the Biodefense Clinical Research Branch, Office of Clinical Research, Office of the Director, NIAID
email | web site | publications


Marilynn Larkin

Marilynn Larkin is a medical editor, journalist, and videographer based in New York City. Her work has frequently appeared in, among others, The Lancet, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, and Reuters Health's professional newswire. She is currently head of publications for The Society for Biomolecular Screening.

Ms. Larkin has served as editor of clinical publications for neurologists, anesthesiologists, HIV providers, and long-term care professionals. She also developed physician/patient education videos and continuing medical education symposia for several medical communications companies.

Prior to her work for physician audiences, she covered health, nutrition, fitness, psychology, and travel for women's and general interest magazines. She is also author of five medical books for general readers, and of Reporting on Health Risk, a handbook for journalists.

In 2004, Ms. Larkin started her own fitness consulting company (www.mlarkinfitness.com), and developed a class, Posture-cizesm, that helps people improve their posture, increase productivity, and reduce injury.