Violence and Exploitation against Women and Girls
Posted July 21, 2009
Violence is an international public health problem that results in devastating physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences. While males are more often perpetrators and victims of overall violence, females bear the overwhelming brunt of victimization in the areas of infanticide, educational and nutritional neglect, sexual abuse, and domestic violence.
These are just a smattering of the findings to be found in the World Health Organization's first World Report on Violence and Health, published in 2002. Three years in the making, the project was the first comprehensive review of the problem of violence on a global scale. Responding to that report's challenge to lift the "secrecy taboos and feelings of inevitability that surround violent behavior, and to encourage debate that will increase our understanding of this hugely complex phenomenon," the Psychology Section of the Academy hosted a conference called "Violence and Exploitation Against Women and Girls" on November 18, 2005.
Use the tabs above to see a meeting report and multimedia from this event.
WHO | World report on violence and health
The World report on violence and health is the first comprehensive review of the problem of violence on a global scale.
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Contains the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's report, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States.
Adults & Children Together Against Violence
ACT—Adults and Children Together—Against Violence is a violence prevention project that focuses on adults who raise, care for, and teach children ages 0 to 8 years. It is designed to prevent violence by providing young children with positive role models and environments that teach nonviolent problem solving. The project includes a national media campaign and training for community professionals.
Books and Journal Articles
Theories of Violence
Krauss, H. H. 2005. Conceptualizing violence. In Violence in the Schools: Cross-national and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. F. Denmark, U. Gielen, H. H. Krauss, E. Midlarsky, & R. Wesner, Eds. Springer, New York.
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Cost of Violence
Campbell, R., T. Self, & C. E. Ahrens. 2004. The impact of rape on women's sexual health risk behaviors. Health Psychol. 23: 67-74.
Campbell, J. C. 2001. Abuse during pregnancy: a quintessential threat to maternal and child health. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 164: 1578-1579. Full Text
Hegarty, K., E. D. Hindmarsh & M. T. Gilles. 2000. Domestic violence in Australia: definition, prevalence and nature of presentation in clinical practice. MJA 173: 363-367. Full Text
McCloskey, K. & N. Grigsby. 2005. The ubiquitous clinical problem of adult intimate partner violence: the need for routine assessment. Prof. Psychol. 36: 264-275.
Wathen, C. N. & H. L. MacMillan. 2003. Interventions for violence against women. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 289: 589-600.
Prevention of Violence
Anderson, C. A., L. Berkowitz, E. Donnerstein, et al. 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4: 81-110. (PDF, 302 KB) Full Text
Denham, S. A., K. Blair, M. Schmidt, et al. 2002. Compromised emotional competence: seeds of violence sown early? Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 72: 70-82.
Goodwin, T., K. Pacey, & M. Grace. 2003. Childreach: violence prevention in preschool settings. J. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Nurs. 16: 52-60.
Guttman, M. & B. A. Mowder. 2005. The ACT training program: the future of violence prevention aimed at young children and their caregivers. Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 1, 25-36.
Mowder, B.A. 2005. Parent development theory: understanding parents, parenting perceptions, and parenting behaviors. Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 1, 45-64.
Silva, J. & A. Randall. 2005. Giving psychology away: educating adults to ACT against early childhood violence. Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 1: 37-44.
Violence Against Girls and Female Adolescents
Bolyard, M., S. Friedman, C. Maslow, et al. 2005. A study of high-risk group sex events. Paper presented at AIDS Impact Conference, Capetown, South Africa.
Gerber, G. L., J. M. Cronin, & H. J. Steigman. 2004. Attributions of blame in sexual assault to perpetrators and victims of both sexes. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 34: 2149-2165.
Gerber, G. L. 1991. Gender stereotypes and power: perceptions of the roles in violent marriages. Sex Roles 24: 439-458.
Knibb, K. & B. Krauss. 2004. Relationships and urban adolescent vernacular: who are you and what are you to me; implications for HIV risk reduction. Poster presented at the National Institute of Mental Health AIDS Research Training Meeting, Washington, DC.
Krauss, B., H. Krauss, J. O'Day, & K. Rente. 2005. Sexual violence in the schools. In Violence in the Schools: Cross-national and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. F. Denmark, U. Gielen, H. H. Krauss, E. Midlarsky, & R. Wesner, Eds. Springer, New York.
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Krauss, B. J., J. O'Day, C. Godfrey, et al. 2003. Peer pressure is like the weather: people talk about peer pressure but rarely do they operationalize it. Poster session presented at the NIMH Conference on Role of Families in Preventing and Adapting to HIV/AIDS, Washington, DC.
American Association of University Women. 2000. Tech savvy: educating girls in the new computer age. AAUW Educational Foundation Research, Washington, DC. Full Text
Berson, I., M. Berson, & J. Ferron. (in press). Emerging risks of violence in the digital age: lessons for educators from an online study of adolescent girls in the United States. Journal of School Violence. Full Text
Berson, I. & M. Berson. 2002. Evolving a Community Initiative to Protect Children in Cyberspace. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.
Herring, S. 1994. Gender differences in computer-mediated communication: bringing familiar baggage to the new frontier. Presented at the American Library Association annual convention, Miami. Full Text
Violence Against Elderly Women
Nadien, M. 1996. Aging women: issues of mental health and maltreatment. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 789: 129-145.
Violence Against Females with Disabilities
Brady, S. M. 2001. Sterilization of girls and women with intellectual disabilities: past and present justification. Violence Against Wom. 7: 432-461.
Chang, J. C., S. L. Martin, K. E. Moracco, et al. 2003. Helping women with disabilities and domestic violence: strategies, limitations, and challenges of domestic violence programs and services. J. Womens Health 12: 699-708.
Corrigan, P., F. E. Markowitz, A. Watson, et al. 2003. An attribution model of public discrimination towards persons with mental illness. J. Health Soc. Behav. 44: 162-179.
El-Basse, N., L. Gilbert, E. Wu, et al. 2005. HIV and intimate partner violence among methadone-maintained women in New York City. 2005. Soc. Sci. Med. 61: 171-183.
Hendy, N. & G. Pascall. 1998. Independent living: gender, violence and the threat of violence. Disabil. Soc. 13: 415-427.
Kvam, M.H. 2004. Sexual abuse of deaf children. Child Abuse Negl. 28: 241-251.
Li, L., J. A. Ford, & D. Moore. 2000. An exploratory study of violence, substance abuse, disability and gender. Soc. Behav. Personal. 28: 61-71.
Millberger, S., N. Israel, B. LeRoy, et al. 2003. Violence against women with physical disabilities. Violence & Victims 18: 581-590.
Morris, R. L. 2005. Abuse of women with disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International 65: 3580-A.
Nosek, M. A., C. C. Foley, R. B. Hughes, et al. 2001. Vulnerabilities for abuse among women with disabilities. Sex. Disabil. 19: 177-189.
Saxton, M., M. A. Curry, L. E. Powers, et al. 2001. "Bring me my scooter so I can leave you": a study of disabled women handling abuse of personal care providers. Violence Against Wom. 7: 393-417.
Stiles, B .L., S. Halim, & H. Kaplan. 2003. Fear of crime among individuals with physical limitations. Crim. Justice Rev. 28: 232-253.
Stoddard, S., L. Jans, J. Ripple, et al. 1998. Chartbook on women and disability in the US: an info use report. U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, Washington, DC.
Cultural Beliefs and Domestic Violence
Adames, S. B. & Campbell, R. 2005. Immigrant Latinas' conceptualizations of intimate partner violence. Violence Against Wom. 11: 1341-1364.
Browne, A. 1992. Violence against women: relevance for medical practitioners. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 267: 3184-3189.
Caceres, C. F., B. V. Marin, & E. S. Hudes. 2000. Sexual coercion among youth and young adults in Lima, Peru. J. Adolescent Health 27: 361-367.
Crandall, M. K. Senturia, M. Sullivan, et al. 2005. "No way out": Russian-speaking women's experiences with domestic violence. J. Interpers. Violence 20: 941-958.
Ellsberg, M., T. Caldera, A. Herrera, et al. 1999. Domestic violence and emotional distress among Nicaraguan women: results form a population-based study. Am. Psychol. 54: 30-36.
Ellsberg M. C., R. Peña, A. Herrera, et al. 1999. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua. Am. J. Public Health 89: 241-244.
Horne, S. 1999. Domestic violence in Russia. Am. Psychol. 54: 55-61.
Kasturirangan, A. & E. N. Williams. 2003. Counseling Latina battered women: a qualiative study of the Latina perspective. J. Multicult. Couns. D. 31: 162-178.
Kozu, J. 1999. Domestic violence in Japan. Am. Psychol. 54: 50-54.
Kulwicki, A. D. 2002. The practice of honor crimes: a glimpse of domestic violence in the Arab world. Issues Ment. Health Nurs. 23: 77-87.
McWhirter, P. T. 1999. La violencia privada: domestic violence in Chile. Am. Psychol. 54: -40.
Moracco, K. E., A. Hilton, K. G. Hodges, et al. 2005. Knowledge and attitudes about intimate partner violence among immigrant Latinos in rural North Carolina. Violence Against Wom. 11: 337-352.
Rivers, M. J. 2005. Navajo women and abuse: the context for their troubled relationships. J. Fam. Violence 20: 83-89.
Sabogal, F. Marin & Otero-Sabolgal. 1987. Hispanics, familism, and acculuturation: what changes and what doesn't? Hispanic J. Behav. Sci. 9: 397-412.
Sagot, M. 2005. The critical path of women affected by family violence in Latin America. Violence Against Wom. 11: 1292-1318.
Sokoloff, N. J. & I. Dupont. 2005. Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender: challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities. Violence Against Wom. 11: 38-64.
Sullivan, M., R. Bhyan, K. Senturia, et al. 2005. Participatory action research in practice: a case study addressing domestic violence in nine cultural communities. J. Interpers. Violence 20: 977-995.
Walker, L. 1999. Psychology and domestic violence around the world. Am. Psychol. 54: 21-29.
World Health Organization. 2002. Sexual violence. From World Report on Violence and Health. (PDF, 247 KB) Full Text
Yoshihama, M. 2002. Breaking the web of abuse and silence: voices of battered women in Japan. Soc. Work 47: 389-400.
Yoshihama, M. 1999. Domestic violence: Japan's "hidden crime." Jpn. Quart. 46: 76-82.
Yoshihama, M. 1999. The immigrant women-in-context framework: Studies of domestic violence against women of Japanese descent in the U. S. and Japan. In The Proceedings from the International Research Network on Violence Against Women Fourth Annual Meeting. Center for Health and Gender Equality, Washington, DC.
Yoshihama, M. & J. Horrocks. 2002. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and victimization among Japanese American women. J. Consult. Clin. Psych. 70: 205-215.
Domestic Violence in South Asian Immigrants to the United StatesAbraham, M. 2000. Isolation as a form of marital violence: the South Asian immigrant experience. J. Soc. Distress Homel. 9: 221-236.
Ayyub, R. 2000. Domestic violence in the South Asian Muslim immigrant population in the United States. J. Soc. Distress Homel. 9: 237-s248.
Bhandari-Preisser, A. 1999. Domestic violence in South Asian communities in America: advocacy and intervention. Violence Against Wom. 5: 684-699.
Bui, H. N. 2003. Help-seeking behavior among abused Vietnamese women: a case of Vietnamese American women. Violence Against Wom. 9: 207-239.
Clark, A. H. & D. W. Foy. 2000. Trauma exposure and alcohol use in battered women. Violence Against Wom. 6: 37-48.
Dasgupta, S. D. 2000. Charting the course: an overview of domestic violence in the South Asian community in the United States. J. Soc. Distress Homel. 9: 173- 185.
Ferraro, K. J. 2003. The words change, but the melody lingers: the persistence of the battered woman syndrome in criminal cases involving battered women. Violence Against Wom. 9: 110-129.
Kocot, T. & L. Goodman. 2003. The roles of coping and social support in battered women's mental health. Violence Against Wom. 9: 323-346.
Mehrotra, M. 1999. The social construction of wife abuse: Experiences of Asian Indian women in the United States. Violence Against Wom. 5: 619-640.
Merchant, M. 2000. A comparative study of agencies assisting domestic violence victims: does the South Asian community have special needs? J. Soc. Distress Homel. 9: 249- 259.
Raj, A. & J. Silverman. 2002. Violence against immigrant women: the roles of culture, context and legal immigrant status on intimate partner violence. Violence Against Wom. 367-398.
So-Kum Tang, C. 1997. Psychological impact of wife abuse: experiences of Chinese women and their children. J. Interpers. Violence 12: 466-478.
Sutherland, C. A., C. M. Sullivan, & D. I. Bybee. 2001. Effects of intimate partner violence versus poverty on women's health. Violence against Wom. 7: 1122-1143.
Swan, S. C. & D. L. Snow. 2003. Behavioral and psychological differences among abused women who use violence in intimate relationships. Violence Against Wom. 9: 75-109.
Yick, A. G. & P. Agbayami-Siewert. 1997. Perceptions of domestic violence in a Chinese American community. J. Interpers. Violence 12: 832-846.
Violence Against Muslim Women in America
Abraham, M. 2000. Isolation as a form of marital violence: the south Asian immigrant experience. J. Soc. Distress Homel. 9: 221-236.
Ayyub, R. 2000. Domestic violence in the south Asian Muslim immigrant population of the United States. J. Soc. Distress Homel. 9: 237-248.
Bonisteel, M. & L.Green. 2005. Implications of the shrinking space for feminist anti-violence advocacy. Paper presentation at the Canadian Social Welfare Policy Conference, Fredericton, Canada.
Eisentein, H. 2005. A dangerous liaison? Feminism and corporate globalization. Sci. Soc. 69: 487-518.
Hallak, M. & K. Quina. 2004. In the shadows of the twin towers: Muslim immigrant women's voices emerge. Sex Roles 51: 329-338.
Hallak, M., K. Quina, & C. Collyer. 2005. Preventing violence in schools: lessons from King and Gandhi. In Violence in Schools Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. F. Denmark, Ed. Springer, New York.
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Hallak, M. 2004. Oppression: a way of life for Muslim women amongst us. Columbia University International Center for Cooperation & Conflict Resolution, New York.
Kool, R. & L. Goodman. 2003. The roles of coping and social support in battered women's mental health. Violence Against Wom. 9: 323-346.
International Sexual Harassment
Fitzgerald, L. F. 1993. Sexual harassment: violence against women in the workplace. Am. Psychol. 48: 1070-1076.
Sigal, J., M. S. Gibbs, C. Goodrich, et al. 2005. Cross-cultural reactions to sexual harassment: effects of individualist vs. collectivist culture and gender of participants. Sex Roles 52: 201-215.
June F. Chisholm, PhD
June Chisholm is professor of psychology at Pace University, adjunct professor at New York University Medical Center, and adjunct clinical associate professor at St. John's University. She is a clinical psychologist who worked for many years as a senior psychologist in the out-patient psychiatric department at Harlem Hospital Center providing psychological services to an ethnically diverse primarily poor urban population. She serves on the State Board for Psychology. Her clinical and research interests include issues in the psychological treatment of women of color, psychological assessment of children and adults, parenting, community psychology, violence, and prejudice in the theory and practice of psychology.
Joan C. Chrisler, PhD
Joan Chrisler is professor of psychology and chair of the department of psychology at Connecticut College. She received her doctorate in experimental psychology at Yeshiva University. She is the current editor of the journal Sex Roles and president-elect of the Society for the Psychology of Women (APA Division 35). A Fellow of APA, Chrisler is a prolific author and is best known for her work on women's health and embodiment.
Darlene C. DeFour, PhD
Darlene DeFour is a social and community psychologist. She is a graduate of Fisk University and received her doctorate from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is currently associate professor of psychology at Hunter College of the City University of New York. She is a member of the board of directors of the New York Association of Black Psychologists and has served on the board of directors of the National Association. She is also active in several divisions of the American Psychological Association. The theme of her current research is the exploration of the various ways that violence in the form of racism and sexism as well as physical violence affects the everyday lives of adolescent and adult Black females.
Florence Denmark, PhD
Florence Denmark is the Robert Scott Pace Distinguished Research Professor at Pace University. A social psychologist who has published extensively in the psychology of women and gender, she has long been an energetic force in advancing psychology internationally. Denmark served as the 88th president of the American Psychological Association and has been a president of the International Council of Psychologists, Eastern Psychological Association, New York State Psychological Association, and Psi Chi. She was also a vice-president of the New York Academy of Sciences. She has four honorary doctorates and is the recipient of many awards including APA's Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training, Public Interest and the Advancement of International Psychology. She is currently an APA/NGO representative to the UN.
Sheila Ferguson, MD
Sheila Ferguson is a graduate of Edinburgh Medical School. Prior to moving to the United States, she worked as a general practitioner in Scotland, England, and New Zealand. She is a candidate for an MA in psychology at Connecticut College, where she is pursuing her interests in gender, personality, and counseling psychology.
Madeline Fernández, PhD
Department of Psychology
Madeline Fernández is currently the director of field training for the doctoral program at Pace University. In her 19 years of working as a bilingual psychologist, she has worked in both clinical and school settings spanning the age range from preschool to the elderly. A large portion of her work has consisted of working with bilingual and bicultural populations and cultural issues have naturally evolved as a longstanding interest in all facets of assessment and treatment.
Roseanne Flores, PhD
Roseanne Flores is a developmental psychologist who received her PhD from the City University of New York. She is currently assistant professor in the department of psychology at Hunter College in the City University of New York. Her interests include effects of poverty on cognition development, language and education, the relationship between music and cognition, and the effects of violence on children's development.
Irene Frieze, PhD
Irene Frieze is a professor of psychology and women's studies at the University of Pittsburgh; she received her PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles. A former President of Division 35 of the American Psychological Association and a fellow of APA, she recently received the Denmark/Reuder award from Division 52 for her outstanding work in the International Psychology of Women.
Gwendolyn Gerber, PhD
City University of New York
John Jay College
Department of Psychology
Gwendolyn Gerber is a professor of psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. She has published extensively in the area of gender and women's issues, including her recently published book, entitled, Women and Men Police Officers: Status, Gender, and Personality. In addition, she is in the private practice of psychotherapy in New York City.
Maram Hallak, PhD
City University of New York
Borough of Manhattan Community College
Maram Hallak is assistant professor at Borough of Manhattan Community College at the City University of New York. She received her PhD from the University of Rhode Island in experimental psychology. Her work and research interests emerge from nonviolence and peace studies, psychology of women, and multicultural psychology.
John Hogan, PhD
St. John's University
Department of Psychology
[biography to come]
Anitha Venkataramani Kothari
Anitha Venkataramani Kothari has worked for the Asian-American Federation since obtaining the MA at Columbia University in 2003.
Beatrice J. Krauss, PhD
Beatrice Krauss received her doctorate in social personality psychology from The Graduate Center, City University of New York and an MA in clinical psychology from the University of Kansas. She is the executive director of the Hunter College Center for Community and Urban Health and a Professor of Community Health Education in the Hunter College Urban Public Health program. She was recently appointed a fellow of the American Psychological Association and its Health Psychology Division. Her research concentrates on families, adolescents, HIV risk, and adaptation to chronic urban health conditions.
Herbert H. Krauss, PhD
Herbert Krauss is currently professor of psychology and chair of the department of psychology at Pace University in New York City. He earned his BS in experimental psychology and MS in clinical psychology from the Pennsylvania State University and his PhD in clinical psychology from Northwestern University. In addition to this appointment at Pace, he currently serves as adjunct associate professor of psychiatry (psychology) at Weill Cornell Medical College and adjunct associate attending psychologist at Payne-Whitney Clinic. Before coming to Pace, he was professor of psychology at Hunter College of the City University of New York. He is the author of approximately 100 scholarly works, the most recent of which is "Conceptualizing Violence," a chapter in Violence in the Schools: Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. His primary intellectual commitment is to understanding the relationship between social institutions and personal development and action. In addition, he has published in such diverse areas as personality development, psychopathology and its treatment, and rehabilitation psychology.
Maureen C. McHugh, PhD
Maureen McHugh, a social psychologist and gender specialist, is a professor of psychology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. She received her PhD from the University of Pittsburgh and is a fellow of the American Psychological Association. Her work on feminist methods and violence against women is included in many Psychology of Women texts. She has received the AWP Distinguished Publication Award and the Christine Ladd Franklin Award for her contributions to feminist psychology.
Elizabeth Midlarsky, PhD
Elizabeth Midlarsky is professor in the department of counseling and clinical psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. She obtained her PhD in clinical psychology from Northwestern University and is a fellow of the American Psychological Association.
Barbara A. Mowder, PhD
Barbara Mowder is director of graduate psychology programs at Pace University-New York City. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, founder of the Association of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology, and editor of the Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology. She has written extensively on the relationship of psychological services to children, adolescents, and their families. Most recently, she has conducted extensive research on parenting perceptions and behavior, developing the Parent Development Theory and focusing on the relationship of parenting dynamics to child development outcomes.
Margot Nadien, PhD
Margot Nadien, associate professor of psychology at Fordham University, has authored two texts—The Child's Psychosocial Development and Adult Years and Aging. She has also coedited the text, Females and Autonomy: A Life-Span Perspective. A nongovernmental organizational representative to the United Nations from the International Council of Psychologists, she cochairs the Elder Abuse Subcommittee and is active in the New York Academy of Sciences' Steering Committee and in the Executive Board of the Academic Division of the New York State Psychological Association.
Susan Pick, PhD
Susan Pick received her PhD from the University of London in England, is professor of social psychology at the National University of Mexico, and is president and founder of the Mexican NGO IMIFAP. For the current school year, she is a fellow at the HarvardÂ School of Public Health. Pick has directed research and programs in the fields of health promotion and poverty reduction with funding from over 200 different institutions; she isÂ the author or coauthor of over 250 publications, both academic ones and for the general public. Pick received the Denmark/Gunvald award for outstanding international research on women from the International Council of Psychologists.
Maura Plante lived and worked in China prior to entering the MA program in Clinical Psychology at Columbia University in the fall of 2005.
Daniel B. Rosen, PhD
D. Rosen Associates
Daniel B. Rosen is President of D. Rosen Associates, a provider of strategic advisory and consulting services to the health care and human services industry. He received his doctorate from Fordham University. Rosen has become well known in the disability field as an administrator, fundraiser, consultant (both national and international), educator, lecturer, author, and advocate of legislation to enhance the lives of and protect the rights of people with disabilities.
Janet Sigal, PhD
Janet Sigal is a professor at Fairleigh Dickinson University in New Jersey and she received her PhD from Northwestern University. Her specialization research areas include cross-cultural research on sexual harassment and domestic violence, methodological consideration in cross-cultural research, and simulated jury studies. She has recently been elected to Fellow Status in Division 35 of the American Psychological Association.
Leslie Knowlton is a freelance writer based in New York City and on Deer Isle, Maine. With a master's degree in psychology, she spent more than a decade as a correspondent for the Los Angeles Times and a medical writer and contributing editor for the Psychiatric Times. Her work has also appeared in dozens of other newspapers and magazines including the Boston Globe, Chicago Tribune, New York Daily News, Cosmopolitan and Fitness.