Consumer Behavior and Food Science Innovations for Optimal Nutrition
Wednesday, March 26, 2014
Innovations in food and agriculture have the potential to develop products to decrease the global environmental footprint, optimize nutrition, and meet agricultural challenges and consumer needs of the 21st Century. As consumer perceptions of food and agricultural technology evolve, so does the social unacceptability of food risks related to public health and the environment. This conference will explore how consumer behavior can be analyzed and utilized to advance healthy and sustainable nutrition, discussing current perceptions of sweet, savory, fat, the benefits and risks of food technology's impact on optimal nutrition from an industry and consumer's perspectives, and strategies such as food labeling to inform consumer choices, and healthy shelf foods.
*Reception to follow.
|By 03/12/2014||After 03/12/2014||Onsite|
|Nonmember (Student / Postdoc / Fellow)||$20||$40||$70|
* Presentation titles and times are subject to change.
March 26, 2014
Registration and Continental Breakfast
Keynote Lecture: Consumer Food Choices: Understanding the Influence of Access, Prices, Knowledge, and Nudges
Session 1: The Elements of FoodSession Chair: Girish Ganjyal, PhD, Washington State University
The Role of Food Science in Ingredient Functionality and Food Systems
Dietary Diversity through Biodiversity in Food Systems
Food Design: The Role of Texture, Odor, and Taste in Eating Behavior
Effects of Food Form on Energy Balance and Appetite
|12:00 PM||Development of Nutritious Food Formulations with Consumer Acceptability|
Sanjiv Avashia, MS, Tate and Lyle
Session 2: The Physiological and Psychological Influences of Food IntakeSession Chair: Riccardo Accolla, PhD, Firmenich
Top-Down Modulation of Taste and Flavor and Its Role in Ingestive Behavior
Does Food Labeling Affect Food Decisions?
Lifestyle Changes to Improve and Manage Weight
Session 3: Societal Factors that Influence NutritionSession Chair: Jessica Fanzo, PhD, Columbia University
Cross-sectoral Alliances to Improve Diets
Empathy & Experiment: Sequencing the Genome of the Wellness Mind
Eating for Personal Health: Carbs, Fats, Gluten, Processed or Whole?
Session 4: The Role of Technology in Food SelectionSession Chair: Julianne Curran, PhD, Pulse Canada
Building a Mobile Phone App for Better Nutrition among Pantry Clients
Online Grocers Can Help Bring More Healthy Options to the Table
Using Technology to Evaluate Nutritional Content
Girish Ganjyal, PhD
Washington State University
Dr. Girish Ganjyal is a faculty in the School of Food Science at the Washington State University (WSU). Girish received his Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) in Food Processing. After graduating from UNL, he worked as a Principal Scientist at MGP Ingredients, Inc. in the areas of protein and starch modifications and extrusion processing. Later he worked at PepsiCo in their Advanced Research Team on extrusion and frying processes, before joining WSU. Girish has over 9 years of industry experience in food ingredients, process technologies and food product development. Girish currently offers extension and research services for food companies of all sizes and types through the WSU Food Processing extension and research programs. Girish is based in Pullman, WA.
Jessica Fanzo, PhD
Jessica Fanzo is an Assistant Professor of Nutrition in the Institute of Human Nutrition and Department of Pediatrics at Columbia University in New York. She also serves as the Senior Advisor of Nutrition Policy at the Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development. Before joining Columbia University, Jessica was the Evaluation and Monitoring Officer for the REACH Interagency partnership at the UN World Food Programme. From 2010–11, Jessica was a Senior Scientist at Bioversity International, a CGIAR center, in Rome Italy, where she led their Nutrition and Biodiversity program. From 2007–2010, she served as the Nutrition Director at the Center for Global Health and Economic Development at the Earth Institute, and the Nutrition Regional Advisor for East and Southern Africa at the Millennium Development Goal Centre at the World Agroforestry Centre in Kenya. Prior to joining the Earth Institute, she was a Program Officer for the Medical Research Program focusing on global health initiatives at the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. Jessica became the first laureate in 2012 of the Daniel Carasso Premio for her work on sustainable food and diets for long-term human health. Jessica has a PhD in Nutrition from the University of Arizona and completed a Stephen I. Morse postdoctoral fellowship in Immunology at Columbia University.
Julianne Curran, PhD
Julianne Curran has a PhD in Human Nutritional Sciences from the University of Manitoba and has worked at Pulse Canada since 2005 as part of a team to position pulse crops (beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas) and their ingredient derivatives as healthy and environmentally sustainable ingredient solutions for the food industry. In her role as Director of Nutrition, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Julianne facilitates research that leads to the development of credible, science-based nutrition and health marketing messages and health claims. Julianne assists pulse industry stakeholders with developing label claims and marketing materials, identifies potential regulatory barriers to use of pulse food ingredients and communicates these issues back to the pulse industry and research community. In addition, Julianne also communicates regularly with research scientists and funding organizations on the Canadian pulse industry's strategic areas of focus for nutrition, health and food science research and in particular gives guidance on regulatory considerations and commercial interests. Julianne has taught nutrition and food science related courses at the University of Manitoba and is an author on several publications related to her PhD thesis and pulse nutrition and health topics. Julianne is also a member of Dietitians of Canada and serves on the Editorial Board for the Bean Institute in the US.
Maret Traber, PhD
Oregon State University
Dr. Maret G.Traber is a Professor in the Nutrition Program, College of Public Health and Human Sciences, and the Helen P. Rumbel Professor for Micronutrient Research in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University. Dr. Traber is considered one of the world's leading experts on vitamin E. She pioneered the use of deuterium-labeled vitamin E for studies evaluating vitamin E status in humans. Her studies caused a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating vitamin E availability in humans. Her work has provided the scientific basis for understanding the complex role of vitamin E in human health. She has published over 170 peer-reviewed and 100 invited papers, all in highly regarded journals. She pioneered the methodologies for evaluating vitamin E status in humans, and through this identified key mechanisms for regulating vitamin E bioavailability in humans. This work significantly contributed to establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin E. Dr. Traber currently serves on the editorial boards of Free Radical Biology & Medicine and of Redox Biology.
Riccardo Accolla, PhD
Riccardo Accolla, PhD, is Director of Discovery of the Health and Nutrition platform and Taste Modulation Business Unit within Firmenich, based in Princeton, NJ. In his current role he is responsible of identifying innovative technologies / solutions / business models in the field of Consumer Health and Taste perception Modulation. Over the last 3 years, Riccardo was instrumental to establish Firmenich as a key stakeholder in multidisciplinary Public-Private partnerships on Obesity and NCDs prevention with a sound focus on go-to-market solutions (product, positioning). In September 2013 he was invited by the Sackler Institute of Nutrition Sciences to join the Working Group on Technology and Innovation in Agriculture, Food, and Nutrition. Riccardo obtained a PhD in Neuroscience from the Brain Mind Institute at Swiss Polytechnic Federal Institute (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, and a MEng in Biomedical Engineering from the Polytechnic School of Milan, Italy. His research on taste perception, cognition and memory has been published in high impact, peer-reviewed journals.
Mandana Arabi, MD, PhD
Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science
Amy Beaudreault, PhD
Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science
Joanne Guthrie, PhD
United States Department of Agriculture
Joanne F. Guthrie is a nutritionist with the Food Assistance Branch, Food Economics Division of the USDA Economic Research Service (ERS). She is the Project Director for the Behavioral Economics–Child Nutrition Initiative, conducted by ERS with funding support from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). As Project Director, she developed and manages a portfolio of extramurally-funded projects that employ behavioral economics theory to identify strategies to increase the effectiveness of USDA school meal programs. The project was awarded the USDA Secretary's Honor Award in 2011. In addition, she conducts research and evaluation studies with a special focus on USDA child nutrition programs and on nutrition education provided through food assistance programs. She represents ERS on the USDA's Human Nutrition Coordinating Committee and other interagency Federal nutrition committees.
Peter Clarke, PhD
University of Southern California
Peter Clarke, Ph.D., is Professor of Communication, and of Preventive Medicine at the University of Southern California. He has directed projects that apply advanced telecommunications to healthcare. His most recent book (with Susan H. Evans) is Surviving Modern Medicine. Clarke’s current interests center on improving human nutrition. The program he and Evans created, From the Wholesaler to the Hungry (FWH), launched more than 150 new efforts nationwide that recover vast quantities of surplus fresh produce and direct these nutritious foods to low-income Americans. FWH received awards for public service from the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture and the UPS Foundation. Clarke and Evans are now developing and field testing Quick! Help for Meals, a system that customizes recipes and food-use tips for clients of community pantries. This individualized messaging greatly increases pantry clients’ consumption of vegetable-based meals and snacks. In addition to his research and work in social action, Clarke has chaired or served as dean of four academic programs in communication at three universities: the School of Communications (University of Washington); the Department of Journalism and, later, the Department of Communication (University of Michigan); and the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism (University of Southern California).
Bruce Cogill, PhD
Bruce Cogill is the program leader for Nutrition and Marketing of Diversity at the Rome head office of Bioversity International. He has an extensive experience in management, food and nutrition policy, nutrition, sustainable diets, agriculture and environment, research, programs and practice. He holds a Ph.D. and Master’s degrees from Cornell University in the U.S.A. where he studied International Nutrition and Agricultural Economics and an undergraduate degree from Australia in Food Science and Technology. He has consulted on food and nutrition for Universities, the UN, the World Bank and others. His experience includes appointments as the Chief of Nutrition at USAID Washington where he led the nutrition effort for the Feed the Future and the Global Health Initiative. He was coordinator for the Global Nutrition Cluster at UNICEF where he coordinated over 37 NGOs, academic, UN and technical agencies in the food and nutrition preparedness and response to emergencies. In addition, he spearheaded the successful FANTA and A2Z projects and USAID’s efforts in research and programming for nutrition and food security, HIV, micronutrients and in the community management of severe and moderate acute malnutrition. He has contributed to strategy developments for large donors and served on technical committees and recently was on the Board of the Micronutrient Initiative, GAIN Alliance, and the Chair of the Steering Committee for the Health and Nutrition Tracking Service at WHO. He has lived and worked in several countries including Mozambique, Kenya, and Papua New Guinea. He has published extensively ranging from practical guides and reviews to articles in peer reviewed journals including one of the most popular guides on anthropometry. He has lectured and worked at various universities including Columbia, Johns Hopkins, Tulane, Queensland, Roma Tre, Oxford and others. He has appeared on television news programs and in print as an authority on international nutrition and sustainable diets. He has published in peer reviewed journals and other publications and is the Associate Editor for Nutrition for the Journal for Global Health: Science and Practice.
Fred Brouns, PhD
Prof Dr. Fred Brouns obtained a PhD in Nutritional Physiology at the Maastricht University in the Netherlands on the Topic "Food and Fluid Related Aspects in Highly Trained athletes" For this work, which included aspects of food and drink consumption, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism during intense physical performance, he was awarded the Dutch Sports Medicine Award. Fred has over 25 years experience in the field of life sciences and health nutrition, headed international R&D functions in the area of Nutrition and Health at Wander Dietetics, Sandoz Nutrition, Novartis Nutrition, Eridania Beghin Say, Cerestar and Cargill Inc. Today he holds a chair in Health Food Innovation at the Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life and Sciences within the research school NUTRIM (Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism Research Institute Maastricht) of Maastricht University and he is Program director of the international MSc program "Health Food Innovation Management" He has currently a special focus on health and disease aspects of cereals, whole grain and added sugars.
Susan H. Evans, PhD
University of Southern California
Susan H. Evans is Research Scientist at the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. She has a long-standing interest in using communication technologies and strategies to improve public health, especially people’s capacity to avoid or manage chronic illnesses. Her current research focuses on developing and testing a mobile phone app to help low-income people use fresh vegetables distributed by food pantries. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and builds on her years of experience working with food banks across the country, helping more than 150 organizations launch programs to distribute fresh produce. She is an award-winning producer of interactive media tools in health, from such organizations as the Association of Visual Communications and the International Teleconferencing Association. She is co-author (with Peter Clarke) of Surviving Modern Medicine: How to Get the Best from Doctors, Family, and Friends. Evans has been co-PI on research grants from the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the IBM Corporation, the State of California, the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation, and other foundations and agencies. Evans earned her PhD at the University of Michigan.
Howard Moskowitz, PhD
Moskowitz Jacobs Inc.
Howard Moskowitz is the chairman of iNovum, LLC, a new company focusing on increasing science and commerce by understanding ‘the algebra of the mind.' He received his PhD from Harvard University, 1969. Since then he has pioneered research approaches, first as a government scientist, then as an entrepreneur. In 1972 he founded the journal Chemical Senses, and has gone on to publish 24 books, and 300+ articles and conference proceedings. His current work involves a new science he developed, Mind Genomics, the experimental science of the everyday, for which has written/is completing another 20 volumes, an oeuvre called The New Novum Organum.
James O. Hill, PhD
University of Colorado
James O. Hill, PhD is the founding executive director of the Anschutz Health and Wellness Center at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. He holds the Anschutz endowed chair in health and wellness and is also professor of Pediatrics and Medicine. Dr. Hill served as chair of the first World Health Organization Consultation on Obesity in 1997 and was president of both The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition. He helped the NIH develop the first US guidelines for the treatment and prevention of obesity. He has published more than 500 scientific articles and book chapters. Many of these focus on the importance of healthy eating and physical activity in weight management. He is the recipient of awards from the TOS, Centrum Center, McCollum and the ASN. Dr. Hill is a co-founder of the National Weight Control Registry, a registry of individuals who have been successful in maintenance of a reduced body weight. He is co-founder of America on the Move, a national weight gain prevention initiative that aims to inspire Americans to make small changes in how much they eat and how much they move to prevent weight gain. He is also co-author of the Step Diet book (2004) and the State of Slim (2013).
Jodi Kahn is the Chief Consumer Officer for FreshDirect, where she is responsible for all consumer-facing marketing, including shopping experience and digital/mobile development, driving new marketing platforms and enhancing the company’s insights and database platforms. Previously, Kahn served as President of iVillage, the largest online content community for women at NBC Universal, where she reengineered the business, introduced new revenue/licensing models and transformed the organization’s DNA. Her team developed a powerful insight tool that allowed iVillage to tap into the passions and challenges of everyday women, and ignited the popular “Community Challenges” program to galvanize women around health, education, and finance issues. These initiatives captured national recognition including a deep partnership with the First Lady and the White House. Under Kahn’s leadership, iVillage became a stage for influencers and brands to engage with women around important life issues.
Juan M. Gonzalez, PhD
MBA Mead Johnson
Juan M Gonzalez is an Associate Director and Fellow in Global Product Development at the Pediatric Nutrition Institute at Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, Indiana. Dr. Gonzalez is also an Adjunct Professor at the Food and Nutrition Department of the University of Southern Indiana, Evansville. He obtained a BSc in Chemistry at the National University in Dominican Republic, a MSc in Food Science at The Ohio State University, a MBA at the University of Minnesota, a PhD in Food Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and conducted postdoctoral work at the Biochemical Engineering program of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Gonzalez has over 20 years of international experience in the food industry – R&D, manufacturing and management. His work in Mead Johnson Nutrition has focused on technology innovation for infant and children nutrition.
Kees de Graaf, PhD
Kees de Graaf is a professor in Sensory Science and Eating Behavior at the Division of Human Nutrition of Wageningen University, the Netherlands. He has a BSc/MSc-training on human nutrition and consumers sciences. In 1988 he defended his PhD-thesis entitled: Psychophysical studies of mixtures of tastants. De Graaf has published about 170 papers in scientific journals, mostly on psycho-biological determinants of eating behaviour. The research and teaching activities focus on the meaning of sensory signals, such as taste, odor, texture, for eating behaviour. His attention focuses on different groups of people (children, elderly, normal weight–overweight people), the effects of properties of food on choice and intake while using modern techniques of measurement (e.g. MRI; behavioural observation techniques). The research lines of his chair group focuses on the meaning of sensory signals for eating behaviour. More specifically: 1) relation between physical chemical properties of food and sensory perception of salt, sugar and fat. 2) the effect of sensory signals on health and wellness, 3) the psychobiology of food reward, and 4) the role of external factors on food intake.
Maria Geraldine Velduizen, PhD
During her PhD with Dr. Jan Kroeze at Utrecht University, Maria Veldhuizen was trained as a psychophysicist in taste, smell and flavor perception. Since joining The John B. Pierce Laboratory in 2006, she has combined these skills with neuroimaging of chemosensory perception in humans using fMRI and advanced computational techniques such as network modeling and pattern analysis. She is interested in gustatory encoding, integration of taste and smell, and development of flavor preferences. One focus has been on how the human brain achieves attention to taste and how taste cortex interacts with other cortical areas under attention. She has also worked on the neural commonalities of sweet taste and sweet odors. Lastly she is specifically interested in understanding how the appreciation for a flavor develops by association with calories in humans. In 2010 Marga joined the faculty of The John B. Pierce Laboratory when she was appointed as an associate research scientist. Her future semi-professional ambitions include writing a cookbook and deserving the title neurogastronomist.
Richard Black, PhD
Richard Black joined PepsiCo in January, 2013 as Vice President of Global R&D Nutrition, leading PepsiCo’s dynamic nutrition team to develop and drive a nutrition strategy that fuels PepsiCo’s innovation and portfolio transformation through nutrition science. Richard and his team work closely with PepsiCo’s sector R&D organizations and the Global Nutrition Group to leverage nutrition science for the PepsiCo brands. Prior to joining PepsiCo, Richard worked for Mondeléz International, where he served as Vice President, Nutrition & Chief Nutrition Officer. He brings a wealth of leadership and technical expertise from the consumer packaged and pharmaceutical industries to PepsiCo. In his twenty year career, Richard has held nutrition and health and wellness leadership positions at Nestle, Kellogg’s, Novartis, and Kraft with a focus on dairy, sports nutrition, and micro/macro ingredients. In addition, Richard was an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto, Department of Nutrition Sciences. Richard also served on Health Canada advisory panels, developing policies on health claims and addition of micronutrients in food. He holds his PhD in Psychology of Eating Behavior and has a dual BS degree in Chemistry and Psychology from McMaster University. Richard is a member of the American Society of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, The Obesity Society, as well as various food industry trade associations.
Rick Weiss, MS
Rick Weiss is the President, Founder, and Chief Wellness Engineer of Viocare, Inc., a healthcare information technology company in Princeton, New Jersey. Viocare researches and develops innovative and scientifically-proven dietary and physical activity assessment and behavioral change systems for researchers, clinicians, and wellness counselors. Mr. Weiss has been the Principal Investigator on 24 National Institutes of Health grants and contracts, valued at over $10 million. These projects have formed the basis of Viocare's products. He has received the Princeton Regional Chamber of Commerce Entrepreneur of the Year award, the New Jersey Small Business Development Center's success award twice, the YMCA Healthcare Centennial award, and the U.S. Small Business Association Tibbetts Award. This last award honors companies that have made an important and definable difference in advancing technological innovation and economic growth through the stimulus of Small Business Innovation Research funding. Mr. Weiss has presented at numerous major healthcare conferences and published in peer review journals about new techniques for dietary assessments. Rick started his career as an Applied Researcher at Bell Laboratories after receiving a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering and Math with honors from Carnegie Mellon University and a Master's degree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from Princeton University.
Richard D. Mattes, MPH, PhD, RD
Dr. Mattes is a Distinguished Professor of Nutrition Science at Purdue University, Adjunct Associate Professor of Medicine at the Indiana University School of Medicine and Affiliated Scientist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center. His research focuses on the areas of hunger and satiety, regulation of food intake in humans, food preferences, human cephalic phase responses and taste and smell. At Purdue University, Dr. Mattes is the Director of the Ingestive Behavior Research Center and Chair of the Biomedical and Community Human Subjects Review Committees. He also holds numerous external responsibilities including: Associate editor of American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; editorial board of Chemosensory Perception, Ear, Nose and Throat Journal and Flavour. He is also Secretary of the Rose Marie Pangborn Sensory Science Scholarship Fund. He has received multiple awards, most recently the Babcock-Hart Award from the Institute of Food Technologists. He has authored over 225 publications. Dr. Mattes earned an undergraduate degree in biology and a Masters degree in Public Health from the University of Michigan as well as a doctorate degree in Human Nutrition from Cornell University. He conducted post-doctoral studies at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the Monell Chemical Senses Center.
Sanjiv Avashia, MS
Tate and Lyle
Sanjiv Avashia is employed with Tate & Lyle for 18 years. As a Senior Food Scientist, he specializes in confectionery and snack applications, with expertise in texturants, sweeteners and wellness ingredients. He has over 25 years of food industry experience covering food product development and technical services.
Serena C. Lo, PhD
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Serena Lo is a Consumer Science Specialist in the Division of Public Health Informatics & Analytics of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. She has a BS in cell and molecular biology from the University of Washington and a PhD in applied social psychology from the George Washington University. Since joining the FDA in 2010, Dr. Lo has worked on issues related to food labeling and consumer understanding of nutrition labels, diet-related diseases, and dietary supplement claims and disclaimers. Dr. Lo's activities have included developing, conducting, and advising on survey research design, administration, analysis, and interpretation with a particular emphasis on the use of experimental designs for examining consumer responses to food and dietary supplement labels.
DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRITIOUS FOOD FORMULATIONS WITH CONSUMER ACCEPTABILITY
Tate & Lyle, Hoffman Estates, Illinois
Advances in nutritional science continue to demonstrate attractive opportunities for the improvement of diet and health for today's consumer. These advances oftentimes suggest a reduction in certain food components and/or the addition of ingredients that provide for enhanced nutrition. Previous food product development efforts to incorporate these changes have fallen short in terms of consumer acceptance because of limitations of food technology to deliver products with high consumer acceptance. Recent advances in food ingredient development will be described that provide solutions addressing these previous "acceptability shortfalls". Examples of innovative strategies for food application development, that use complimentary ingredients and processing techniques, hold promise to provide more successful nutritious market offerings, will be discussed.
EATING FOR PERSONAL HEALTH: CARBS, FATS, GLUTEN, PROCESSED OR WHOLE?
Fred Brouns PhD, Chair "Health Food Innovation", Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Netherlands
Frequent daily press about food scandals, ever changing scientific insights and unproven health benefit claims lead to consumers having lost confidence in government and science. Misrepresentation of science together with unsubstantiated wrong opinions as may occur in pieces in popular and social media can sway opinion, cause unfounded fear and impact public health. Misrepresentation can occur at several levels:1) the research group or the institution sponsoring the research can extrapolate the findings beyond what the sample or data allow in order to get more grant money or to achieve greater fame. 2) media outlets and bloggers may either not understand important aspects and limitations of a research method and population that mean the findings are only applicable under certain cases. 3) “Positive-good” press about bad nutritional science” or “Bad-negative” press about good science”. The current media hype about gluten and wheat leads to changes in food habits that may eliminate perfectly safe and nutritious choices that may impact on health. The current situation has lead to consumers stating: “the food industry makes me fat and the government doe not protect me from that”. The Politicians: “The industry should self-regulate and educate the public”. The Industry: “The consumer has his/her own responsibility for food choice”. Science: “we are overruled by social media, placebo and nocebo effects”. How do we achieve a situation in which opinion leading individuals check better their statements before going public avoiding unintended consequences of ignoring and/or discrediting good data that counteract their statements, creating new consumer trust.
BUILDING A MOBILE PHONE APP FOR BETTER NUTRITION AMONG PANTRY CLIENTS
Peter Clarke, PhD, and Susan H. Evans, PhD
Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
Clients of community pantries increasingly are offered fresh vegetables, but often lack experience with these challenging foods and fail to use them in nutritious and appealing ways. To address clients’ needs, we are building a mobile phone app. The app customizes recipes and evidence-based tips for healthy food presentation at home to each household’s differing circumstances. The project draws on many types of formative evaluation. We report two methods here. One helps fine-tune the art work illustrating text in the app. The second improves the architecture through which users navigate the app for content. For fine-tuning, small samples of pantry clients are shown paper-based depictions of app screens, as well as screens themselves, that combine varying styles of illustration with the text that images are intended to clarify. For improving architecture, clients are given a loaner phone and observed while they navigate through the app’s features. We have improved instructions to an illustrator so that his images now satisfy more than 8 out of 10 users at pantries, compared to 3 out of 10 at the start of formative evaluation. Improvements in architecture have increased users’ activation of a key option in the app from near-zero to 3 out of 4 pantry clients. These examples of formative evaluation demonstrate how a digital tool can be focused in an effort to achieve nutritional outcomes.
DIETARY DIVERSITY THROUGH BIODIVERSITY IN FOOD SYSTEMS
Bruce Cogill, PhD
There is widespread recognition of the importance of diversity in the diet. National Dietary Guidelines typically promote diversity in their recommendations for consumption of various food groups for all ages including fruits and vegetables. An example is from United Nations agencies that have recommended the consumption of at least 400g per day of fruits and vegetables (excluding potatoes and other tubers). While actual consumption falls way below the recommended levels, the evidence points to the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables prevents some micro-nutrient deficiencies and diet-related non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity and some cancers. The shift in diets and lifestyles towards more animal source foods and high fat, carbohydrate and salt containing foods is linked to the alarming increase in diet-related non-communicable diseases. A number of studies and meta-analyses have validated dietary diversity indices as a proxy for micronutrient intake. There have been many epidemiological studies that have observed the link between dietary diversity and health and nutritional outcomes. Experimental research that has tried to understand the causal links between diet and disease is less common. Studies from low and middle income countries are rare. A review of the various studies indicates a need for more research, especially in countries undergoing dietary transition, and more standardized approach to describing dietary patterns. Better capacity strengthening on the choice and use of indicators as well as experimental design and data analysis is also needed. While there is general recognition of the importance of diversity in the diet, less is known about the links between biodiversity in food systems and dietary diversity. The lack of clear definitions of biodiversity has meant a wide array of possible links and scenarios of negative effects. Declining biodiversity characterized by fewer trees and forest cover has been associated with reduced dietary diversity. Other examples of the linkages have been suggested but need further research to understand the pathways and possible approaches to mitigation. There is more evidence of the benefits of biodiversity in terms of managing risk at the household and ecosystem level. Population growth, climate change, natural resource depletion, demographic changes and dietary transition have increased the urgency for understanding the relationship and promoting approaches to managing risk.
FOOD DESIGN: THE ROLE OF TEXTURE, ODOR AND TASTE IN EATING BEHAVIOR
Cees de Graaf, PhD
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Sensory signals from food play a major role in food choice. Recently, it has also become apparent that sensory signals play a large role in the regulation of food intake. Food texture has a dramatic impact on ingestion rate and food intake. Ingestion rates vary from about 10 g/min for e.g. peanuts to > 500 g/min for soft drinks. Faster eating rates lead to higher food and energy intakes. In a series of studies we showed that the effect of texture/eating rate on food intake is mediated by the magnitude of oro-sensory exposure to taste. A longer and higher exposure to taste (sweet, salt, umami) leads to a lower food intake. This is in agreement with the idea that the sense of taste is a nutrient sensing system that monitors the ingestion of nutrients and communicates this to the gut and the brain. With liquids, this system is bypassed, and this may the cause why liquid calories lead to overconsumption and weight gain. Various attempts to link odors to satiation in a similar way as taste failed. We showed that odor exposure leads to sensory specific appetite; e.g. being exposed to pizza odor results in an appetite for pizza. It is concluded that the effects of texture on food intake works through mediation of taste. Taste contributes to satiation. Odor exposure leads to sensory specific appetite.
CONSUMER FOOD CHOICES: UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCE OF ACCESS, PRICES, KNOWLEDGE AND NUDGES
Joanne F. Guthrie, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Food choices are driven by both the types of food available (supply) and the characteristics of foods preferred by consumers (demand). Global trade and technological advances have broadened the variety of foods available to most American consumers, although concerns about availability and access to low-income consumers continue. This abundance of food options makes consumer choices central to a healthy diet. Consumer demand can be influenced by monetary cost (prices) as well as time costs of preparation. Federal policy seeks to improve choices through information such as nutrition labeling and education. I review research from USDA’s Economic Research Service on how supply changes and demand factors influence consumer food choices and the implications for policies to encourage healthier diets. I also discuss emerging research from behavioral economics on consumer behavior, the relevance of this research to food consumption, and practical applications of behavioral economics to improving food choices.
LIFESTYLE CHANGES TO IMPROVE AND MANAGE WEIGHT
James O. Hill, PhD
Anschutz Health and Wellness Center University of Colorado, Aurora CO
Overweight and obesity affect two-thirds of Americans. Effective ways to make and sustain lifestyle changes are urgently needed in order to lower obesity rates. Strategies to reduce obesity include those to prevent weight gain and those to produce and maintain weight loss. My colleagues and I developed the concept of the energy gap to determine the amount of behavior change required to achieve changes in body weight. A small changes approach can be used to prevent excessive weight gain in children and adults. Larger changes are required to produce and maintain weight loss. Currently we are very successful at producing weight loss but very ineffective in preventing weight regain. Changing lifestyle involves providing knowledge of what changes to make but must also provide help in sustaining these behaviors changes. Sustaining lifestyle changes requires mental preparation and acquisition of appropriate behavior change skills. Finally, sustaining behavior changes over the long term requires finding adequate motivation.
DOES FOOD LABELING AFFECT FOOD DECISIONS?
Serena C. Lo, PhD, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Persistent concerns about diet-related health problems such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease, accompanied by significant public interest in food in general, have intensified the need to improve and augment approaches to measuring the consumer effects of food labeling. Yet the multiple functions that food labels can serve and the complexity of dietary behavior pose ongoing challenges for researchers who study how food labeling factors into consumer decision-making. This presentation will briefly describe selected research related to consumers' use of and responses to food labeling, with an eye toward examining how different research questions and methods reflect varying and sometimes conflicting perspectives about the intended purposes of food labeling. When considering the ways in which food labeling may or may not affect consumer decisions, it is important to distinguish consumers' assumptions and perceptions about food labeling from those of other stakeholders. Future research directions will also be discussed.
THE EFFECTS OF FOOD FORM ON ENERGY BALANCE AND APPETITE
Richard Mattes, MPH, PhD, RD
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
It is well established that the sensory properties of foods are the primary drivers of choice and ingestion. Less widely appreciated is the fact that sensory properties also influence physiological responses to food ingestion. Among the affected processes are salivation, chewing efficiency, gastric motility, secretions from the stomach, intestine and pancreas, renal clearance, hemodynamics and thermogenesis. Each of the sensory properties of a food contributes to the behavioral and physiological responses, including food form. The most discrepant food forms are beverages and solid foods. Contemplation of just this property is sufficient to alter the expected satiety value of the food forms, as well as gastric emptying rate, GI transit time, gut and pancreatic secretions and daily energy intake. The matrix of solid foods also determines their metabolizable energy value. Recent evidence indicates the bioaccessability of energy from nuts may be limited due to the resistance of the parenchymal cell walls to digestion; resulting in fecal energy losses of 5-20% of the energy in the nut. Food form also modulates metabolic responses, most recently documented for second meal effects on glucose and insulin responses. A better understanding of the effects of food form on the post-ingestive consequence of consuming items that differ along this dimension may hold important implications for weight management.
EMPATHY & EXPERIMENT: SEQUENCING THE GENOME OF THE WELLNESS MIND
Howard R. Moskowitz, PhD
iNovum LLC, Saratoga Springs NY
Through experimental design of ideas (called henceforth Mind Genomics) we demonstrate how to discover the specific communications which drive consumers to say that they want to eat a particular product. When the experiment involves communications about ‘wellness,’ Mind Genomics uncovers the communications driving the positive consumer response about wellness, and the communications driving the negative response. Mind Genomics further reveals different mind-sets, i.e., ‘viewpoints’ about a specific topic. These mind-sets are independent of who the person is, but rather involve the way a person thinks about a food, and responds to messaging. The potential increases for driving ‘wellness’ when the research moves beyond just discovering these mind-sets of viewpoints, and into empirically-developed methods to discover the specific mind-set or viewpoint of any particular individual, in any culture or country. Finally, we present the vision of Mind Genomics applied to many foods and wellness situations (breadth of knowledge), and the ‘sequencing’ of the ‘wellness mind’ of many millions of consumers (breadth of application).
TOP-DOWN MODULATION OF TASTE AND FLAVOR AND ITS ROLE IN INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR
Maria G. Veldhuizen, PhD
The John B. Pierce Laboratory, New Haven CT
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
Perception results from an interaction between sensation and cognition. For example, foods and drinks are generally identified by sight and smell before the decision to ingest is made. Consequently, we usually have expectations about what we are going taste. Breaches of these taste expectations can then be very jarring, even if the unexpected sensation is rewarding under other circumstances. One can imagine accidentally sipping a fine Chardonnay while expecting water. The sensation of the wine would be surprising and likely lead to the immediate halting of ingestion. Beliefs can also alter sensation and behavior. The same wine selling for $40 is liked more and produces greater activity in reward regions of the brain than when it is selling for $4. Here we present data showing how expectations and beliefs alter brain response to tastes and flavors and discuss how this influence might impact ingestive behavior.
USING TECHNOLOGY TO EVALUATE NUTRITIONAL CONTENT
Viocare, Inc., Princeton, NJ
Current dietary assessments (typically written food records or interviews) are limited in accuracy and value. Technological advances can facilitate assessment of dietary intakes as well as behavioral tracking to produce improved health outcomes. Two innovative dietary assessment technologies developed by Viocare under National Institutes of Health grants will be discussed. While most people can readily state what it is they are eating, it is generally much more difficult to estimate the portion size than the food identity. VioScreen, an innovative web-based food frequency questionnaire that uses complex branching technology and 1,200 food portion images, enables healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately assess a patient's diet. The user is presented a set of food photographs to assist with portion size estimation for each food selected. Results, which are immediately available, include a food pattern analysis and a list of foods and nutrients consumed, and the "top foods" that contribute the most to key nutrients, i.e. top saturated fat foods. VioScreen was evaluated and determined very accurate through a study with 74 subjects conducted at The Ohio State University. Correlations were substantially higher than reported for many other paper FFQs used in major studies, being at or above 0.80 for most macronutrients (0.90 alcohol, 0.84 saturated fat, 0.82 fat, 0.79 carbohydrate) and 0.67 for protein. VioScreen enables the delivery of individually tailored diet counseling in the context of standard primary care. The second technology to be discussed is the Mobile Food Intake Visual and Voice Recognizer (FIVR), a mobile app that allows an individual to accurately track dietary intake and provides access to their healthcare provider to view these food records. This system handles the portion estimation problem using computer vision techniques. The user takes a short video using their mobile phone's camera. The mobile phone transmits the video to a back-end server where image definition, color analysis and texture classification is used to compute the 3D structure of each food. The 3D model of food items are measured against a known fiducial marker to determine a volume for each food which is converted to a food intake record with a weight. Currently, FIVR recognizes 146 different food types, tested with 322 plates and has achieved as little as 5% error in volume estimation in internal lab tests. The use of these technologies facilitates accurate dietary intake assessment allowing more time to spend on individualized counseling than on capturing dietary intake.
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