Influenza continues to confound us with the continual evolution of the virus and emergence of new influenza viruses from the animal reservoir. In 2013, H7N9 has emerged from the avian reservoir in China killing 40 people in China with concern for further spread; H1N1pdm emerged four years ago to cause a pandemic and continues to circulate causing disease; concern continues over the virulent H5N1 and possible entry into the general population. The annual seasonal vaccines have been improved to broaden response with quadrivalent vaccines; low immunogenicity has been addressed with increased antigen content in vaccines. Many new developments have been made in live flu vaccines, and a new vaccine containing only the main surface antigen has been approved by the FDA. Looking ahead, a synthetic approach to improve the vaccine will be discussed. Join us in anticipation of the upcoming flu season to explore emerging threats and strategies for protection.
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